PSU Profiles
Last Name

Laura Carrel

TitleAssociate Professor
InstitutionCollege of Medicine
DepartmentBiochemistry and Molecular Biology
Address500 University Drive Hershey PA 17033
Mailbox: H171
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    Associate Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology


    Biomedical Sciences
    Biochemistry and Molecular Biology


    M.A., Biochemistry, University of California at Santa Barbara, 1989
    Ph.D., Genetics, Stanford University, 1995
    Postdoctoral Fellowship, Genetics, Case Western Reserve University, 1995-1998

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Carrel L, Brown CJ. When the Lyon(ized chromosome) roars: ongoing expression from an inactive X chromosome. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2017 Nov 05; 372(1733). PMID: 28947654.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Cygan PH, Carrel L, Eyster ME. Moderate X-chromosome inactivation skewing underlies factor VIII activity in symptomatic carriers from a family with mild haemophilia A. Haemophilia. 2016 Nov; 22(6):e559-e561. PMID: 27704658.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Horvath LM, Li N, Carrel L. Deletion of an X-inactivation boundary disrupts adjacent gene silencing. PLoS Genet. 2013 Nov; 9(11):e1003952. PMID: 24278033; PMCID: PMC3836711.
    4. Cheung AY, Horvath LM, Carrel L, Ellis J. X-chromosome inactivation in rett syndrome human induced pluripotent stem cells. Front Psychiatry. 2012; 3:24. PMID: 22470355; PMCID: PMC3311266.
    5. Lopes AM, Arnold-Croop SE, Amorim A, Carrel L. Clustered transcripts that escape X inactivation at mouse XqD. Mamm Genome. 2011 Oct; 22(9-10):572-82. PMID: 21769671.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Berletch JB, Yang F, Xu J, Carrel L, Disteche CM. Genes that escape from X inactivation. Hum Genet. 2011 Aug; 130(2):237-45. PMID: 21614513; PMCID: PMC3136209.
    7. Cheung AY, Horvath LM, Grafodatskaya D, Pasceri P, Weksberg R, Hotta A, Carrel L, Ellis J. Isolation of MECP2-null Rett Syndrome patient hiPS cells and isogenic controls through X-chromosome inactivation. Hum Mol Genet. 2011 Jun 01; 20(11):2103-15. PMID: 21372149; PMCID: PMC3090191.
    8. Park C, Carrel L, Makova KD. Strong purifying selection at genes escaping X chromosome inactivation. Mol Biol Evol. 2010 Nov; 27(11):2446-50. PMID: 20534706; PMCID: PMC2981488.
    9. Prothero KE, Stahl JM, Carrel L. Dosage compensation and gene expression on the mammalian X chromosome: one plus one does not always equal two. Chromosome Res. 2009; 17(5):637-48. PMID: 19802704; PMCID: PMC4941101.
    10. Heard E, Carrel L. Foreword: Coping with sex chromosome imbalance. Chromosome Res. 2009; 17(5):579-83. PMID: 19760092; PMCID: PMC4943316.
    11. Li N, Carrel L. Escape from X chromosome inactivation is an intrinsic property of the Jarid1c locus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Nov 04; 105(44):17055-60. PMID: 18971342; PMCID: PMC2579377.
    12. Carrel L, Park C, Tyekucheva S, Dunn J, Chiaromonte F, Makova KD. Genomic environment predicts expression patterns on the human inactive X chromosome. PLoS Genet. 2006 Sep 29; 2(9):e151. PMID: 17009873; PMCID: PMC1584270.
    13. Carrel L. Molecular biology. "X"-rated chromosomal rendezvous. Science. 2006 Feb 24; 311(5764):1107-9. PMID: 16497921.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Ross MT, Grafham DV, Coffey AJ, Scherer S, McLay K, Muzny D, Platzer M, Howell GR, Burrows C, Bird CP, Frankish A, Lovell FL, Howe KL, Ashurst JL, Fulton RS, Sudbrak R, Wen G, Jones MC, Hurles ME, Andrews TD, Scott CE, Searle S, Ramser J, Whittaker A, Deadman R, Carter NP, Hunt SE, Chen R, Cree A, Gunaratne P, Havlak P, Hodgson A, Metzker ML, Richards S, Scott G, Steffen D, Sodergren E, Wheeler DA, Worley KC, Ainscough R, Ambrose KD, Ansari-Lari MA, Aradhya S, Ashwell RI, Babbage AK, Bagguley CL, Ballabio A, Banerjee R, Barker GE, Barlow KF, Barrett IP, Bates KN, Beare DM, Beasley H, Beasley O, Beck A, Bethel G, Blechschmidt K, Brady N, Bray-Allen S, Bridgeman AM, Brown AJ, Brown MJ, Bonnin D, Bruford EA, Buhay C, Burch P, Burford D, Burgess J, Burrill W, Burton J, Bye JM, Carder C, Carrel L, Chako J, Chapman JC, Chavez D, Chen E, Chen G, Chen Y, Chen Z, Chinault C, Ciccodicola A, Clark SY, Clarke G, Clee CM, Clegg S, Clerc-Blankenburg K, Clifford K, Cobley V, Cole CG, Conquer JS, Corby N, Connor RE, David R, Davies J, Davis C, Davis J, Delgado O, Deshazo D, Dhami P, Ding Y, Dinh H, Dodsworth S, Draper H, Dugan-Rocha S, Dunham A, Dunn M, Durbin KJ, Dutta I, Eades T, Ellwood M, Emery-Cohen A, Errington H, Evans KL, Faulkner L, Francis F, Frankland J, Fraser AE, Galgoczy P, Gilbert J, Gill R, Glöckner G, Gregory SG, Gribble S, Griffiths C, Grocock R, Gu Y, Gwilliam R, Hamilton C, Hart EA, Hawes A, Heath PD, Heitmann K, Hennig S, Hernandez J, Hinzmann B, Ho S, Hoffs M, Howden PJ, Huckle EJ, Hume J, Hunt PJ, Hunt AR, Isherwood J, Jacob L, Johnson D, Jones S, de Jong PJ, Joseph SS, Keenan S, Kelly S, Kershaw JK, Khan Z, Kioschis P, Klages S, Knights AJ, Kosiura A, Kovar-Smith C, Laird GK, Langford C, Lawlor S, Leversha M, Lewis L, Liu W, Lloyd C, Lloyd DM, Loulseged H, Loveland JE, Lovell JD, Lozado R, Lu J, Lyne R, Ma J, Maheshwari M, Matthews LH, McDowall J, McLaren S, McMurray A, Meidl P, Meitinger T, Milne S, Miner G, Mistry SL, Morgan M, Morris S, Müller I, Mullikin JC, Nguyen N, Nordsiek G, Nyakatura G, O'Dell CN, Okwuonu G, Palmer S, Pandian R, Parker D, Parrish J, Pasternak S, Patel D, Pearce AV, Pearson DM, Pelan SE, Perez L, Porter KM, Ramsey Y, Reichwald K, Rhodes S, Ridler KA, Schlessinger D, Schueler MG, Sehra HK, Shaw-Smith C, Shen H, Sheridan EM, Shownkeen R, Skuce CD, Smith ML, Sotheran EC, Steingruber HE, Steward CA, Storey R, Swann RM, Swarbreck D, Tabor PE, Taudien S, Taylor T, Teague B, Thomas K, Thorpe A, Timms K, Tracey A, Trevanion S, Tromans AC, d'Urso M, Verduzco D, Villasana D, Waldron L, Wall M, Wang Q, Warren J, Warry GL, Wei X, West A, Whitehead SL, Whiteley MN, Wilkinson JE, Willey DL, Williams G, Williams L, Williamson A, Williamson H, Wilming L, Woodmansey RL, Wray PW, Yen J, Zhang J, Zhou J, Zoghbi H, Zorilla S, Buck D, Reinhardt R, Poustka A, Rosenthal A, Lehrach H, Meindl A, Minx PJ, Hillier LW, Willard HF, Wilson RK, Waterston RH, Rice CM, Vaudin M, Coulson A, Nelson DL, Weinstock G, Sulston JE, Durbin R, Hubbard T, Gibbs RA, Beck S, Rogers J, Bentley DR. The DNA sequence of the human X chromosome. Nature. 2005 Mar 17; 434(7031):325-37. PMID: 15772651; PMCID: PMC2665286.
    15. Carrel L, Willard HF. X-inactivation profile reveals extensive variability in X-linked gene expression in females. Nature. 2005 Mar 17; 434(7031):400-4. PMID: 15772666.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Carrel L. Evolutionary biology: chromosome chain makes a link. Nature. 2004 Dec 16; 432(7019):817-8. PMID: 15602542.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Hidaka K, Caffrey JJ, Hua L, Zhang T, Falck JR, Nickel GC, Carrel L, Barnes LD, Shears SB. An adjacent pair of human NUDT genes on chromosome X are preferentially expressed in testis and encode two new isoforms of diphosphoinositol polyphosphate phosphohydrolase. J Biol Chem. 2002 Sep 06; 277(36):32730-8. PMID: 12105228.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Hall LL, Byron M, Sakai K, Carrel L, Willard HF, Lawrence JB. An ectopic human XIST gene can induce chromosome inactivation in postdifferentiation human HT-1080 cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Jun 25; 99(13):8677-82. PMID: 12072569; PMCID: PMC124357.
    19. Willard HF, Carrel L. Making sense (and antisense) of the X inactivation center. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Aug 28; 98(18):10025-7. PMID: 11526224; PMCID: PMC56906.
    20. Tiller GE, Hannig VL, Dozier D, Carrel L, Trevarthen KC, Wilcox WR, Mundlos S, Haines JL, Gedeon AK, Gecz J. A recurrent RNA-splicing mutation in the SEDL gene causes X-linked spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda. Am J Hum Genet. 2001 Jun; 68(6):1398-407. PMID: 11326333; PMCID: PMC1226126.
    21. Bailey JA, Carrel L, Chakravarti A, Eichler EE. Molecular evidence for a relationship between LINE-1 elements and X chromosome inactivation: the Lyon repeat hypothesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Jun 06; 97(12):6634-9. PMID: 10841562; PMCID: PMC18684.
    22. Wolff DJ, Schwartz S, Carrel L. Molecular determination of X inactivation pattern correlates with phenotype in women with a structurally abnormal X chromosome. Genet Med. 2000 Mar-Apr; 2(2):136-41. PMID: 11397327.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Carrel L, Cottle AA, Goglin KC, Willard HF. A first-generation X-inactivation profile of the human X chromosome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Dec 07; 96(25):14440-4. PMID: 10588724; PMCID: PMC24455.
    24. Carrel L, Willard HF. Heterogeneous gene expression from the inactive X chromosome: an X-linked gene that escapes X inactivation in some human cell lines but is inactivated in others. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Jun 22; 96(13):7364-9. PMID: 10377420; PMCID: PMC22091.
    25. Mroz K, Carrel L, Hunt PA. Germ cell development in the XXY mouse: evidence that X chromosome reactivation is independent of sexual differentiation. Dev Biol. 1999 Mar 01; 207(1):229-38. PMID: 10049577.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Carrel L, Willard HF. Counting on Xist. Nat Genet. 1998 Jul; 19(3):211-2. PMID: 9662385.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Greenfield A, Carrel L, Pennisi D, Philippe C, Quaderi N, Siggers P, Steiner K, Tam PP, Monaco AP, Willard HF, Koopman P. The UTX gene escapes X inactivation in mice and humans. Hum Mol Genet. 1998 Apr; 7(4):737-42. PMID: 9499428.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Dal Zotto L, Quaderi NA, Elliott R, Lingerfelter PA, Carrel L, Valsecchi V, Montini E, Yen CH, Chapman V, Kalcheva I, Arrigo G, Zuffardi O, Thomas S, Willard HF, Ballabio A, Disteche CM, Rugarli EI. The mouse Mid1 gene: implications for the pathogenesis of Opitz syndrome and the evolution of the mammalian pseudoautosomal region. Hum Mol Genet. 1998 Mar; 7(3):489-99. PMID: 9467009.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Brown CJ, Carrel L, Willard HF. Expression of genes from the human active and inactive X chromosomes. Am J Hum Genet. 1997 Jun; 60(6):1333-43. PMID: 9199554; PMCID: PMC1716148.
    30. Carrel L, Hunt PA, Willard HF. Tissue and lineage-specific variation in inactive X chromosome expression of the murine Smcx gene. Hum Mol Genet. 1996 Sep; 5(9):1361-6. PMID: 8872478.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Carrel L, Willard HF. An assay for X inactivation based on differential methylation at the fragile X locus, FMR1. Am J Med Genet. 1996 Jul 12; 64(1):27-30. PMID: 8826444.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Carrel L, Clemson CM, Dunn JM, Miller AP, Hunt PA, Lawrence JB, Willard HF. X inactivation analysis and DNA methylation studies of the ubiquitin activating enzyme E1 and PCTAIRE-1 genes in human and mouse. Hum Mol Genet. 1996 Mar; 5(3):391-401. PMID: 8852665.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Coleman MP, Ambrose HJ, Carrel L, Németh AH, Willard HF, Davies KE. A novel gene, DXS8237E, lies within 20 kb upstream of UBE1 in Xp11.23 and has a different X inactivation status. Genomics. 1996 Jan 01; 31(1):135-8. PMID: 8808293.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Brown CJ, Miller AP, Carrel L, Rupert JL, Davies KE, Willard HF. The DXS423E gene in Xp11.21 escapes X chromosome inactivation. Hum Mol Genet. 1995 Feb; 4(2):251-5. PMID: 7757075.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Sultana R, Adler DA, Edelhoff S, Carrel L, Lee KH, Chapman VC, Willard HF, Disteche CM. The mouse Sb1.8 gene located at the distal end of the X chromosome is subject to X inactivation. Hum Mol Genet. 1995 Feb; 4(2):257-63. PMID: 7757076.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Lafrenière RG, Carrel L, Willard HF. A novel transmembrane transporter encoded by the XPCT gene in Xq13.2. Hum Mol Genet. 1994 Jul; 3(7):1133-9. PMID: 7981683.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Greig GM, Sharp CB, Carrel L, Willard HF. Duplicated zinc finger protein genes on the proximal short arm of the human X chromosome: isolation, characterization and X-inactivation studies. Hum Mol Genet. 1993 Oct; 2(10):1611-8. PMID: 8268913.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Willard HF, Brown CJ, Carrel L, Hendrich B, Miller AP. Epigenetic and chromosomal control of gene expression: molecular and genetic analysis of X chromosome inactivation. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1993; 58:315-22. PMID: 7956044.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Lafrenière RG, Brown CJ, Powers VE, Carrel L, Davies KE, Barker DF, Willard HF. Physical mapping of 60 DNA markers in the p21.1----q21.3 region of the human X chromosome. Genomics. 1991 Oct; 11(2):352-63. PMID: 1685139.
      View in: PubMed
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