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Joanna Floros

TitleProfessor
InstitutionCollege of Medicine
DepartmentPediatrics
Address500 University Drive Hershey PA 17033
Mailbox: H166
Phone7175316972

 Overview 
 overview
PREFERRED TITLE/ROLE:

Evan Pugh Professor of Pediatrics and Obstetrics & Gynecology

SECONDARY APPOINTMENT(S)/ INSTITUTE(S)/ CENTER(S):

Obstetrics and Gynecology

GRADUATE PROGRAM AFFILIATIONS:

Cell and Molecular Biology, MD/PhD Degree Program

EDUCATION:

Ph.D., Temple University School of Medicine, 1980
Postdoctoral Training, Harvard Medical School, 1980-1982

NARRATIVE:

Dr. Floros leads a research program focused on the regulation of expression and/or function of pulmonary surfactant proteins, SP-A, SP-B, SP-D, and their role in pulmonary disease. The specific hypothesis states that regulatory, functional, or structural differences among the surfactant protein genetic variants are altered under certain circumstances. These changes in turn determine or contribute to the disease or the health status of an individual. Therefore, study of such differences among surfactant protein variants may contribute to our better understanding of the observed individual variability in the susceptibility of pulmonary disease. Dr. Floros's current research activities include: a) studies of molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of human SP-A and SP-B variants/genes in health and disease, b) studies of functional differences among the human SP-A variants/genes in the presence or absence of environmental insults, such as ozone exposure; c) studies of genetic associations of surfactant protein variants and pulmonary disease with emphasis on neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS).

Background: Pulmonary surfactant is a lipoprotein complex essential for normal lung function, and surfactant deficiency in the prematurely born infant can lead to Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS). SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, and SP-D are involved in important surfactant functions, such as the maintenance of alveolar integrity and/or the regulation of inflammatory processes and the local host defense of the lung. Therefore, functional or quantitative aberration of surfactant proteins may lead to surfactant dysfunction and/or to compromised host defenses in the lung. The surfactant proteins are regulated developmentally, hormonally, and in a tissue-specific manner. The human SP-A locus consists of two functional genes and one pseudogene, whereas all animal species (except primates) appear to have only one gene. Based on coding sequences, a number of variants have been identified and characterized for each functional human SP-A gene. In humans, SP-A levels have been shown to vary under certain circumstances. Low levels of SP-A mRNA have been associated with a specific SP-A genotype and the ratio of SP-A1 to total SP-A has been shown to vary as a function of age and disease. Also, differences among SP-A variants in response to glucocorticoids have been observed. This may, for example, explain the differential response observed with regards to lung maturity in prematurely born babies to mothers who received prenatal steroid therapy. Moreover, the SP-A variants differ among themselves at amino acids with potentially different sensitivities to oxidation following, for example, exposure to agents such as ozone. Differential oxidation of SP-A variants may result in SP-A dysfunction and this in turn may differentially contribute to pulmonary disease susceptibility. A number of variants have also been identified and characterized, albeit to a lesser extent, for SP-B as well as for SP-D. SP-A and SP-B variants have been shown to associate with pulmonary disease in subgroups of neonatal RDS and in groups with other pulmonary diseases. SP-A susceptibility or protective alleles and haplotypes have been identified for RDS. In summary, Dr. Floros' overall research interests are focused on the regulation and function of surfactant protein variants in health and disease. The hope is that findings from the model system of the surfactant protein variants will shed light on the genetic underpinnings with regards to individual variability to susceptibility of pulmonary disease, and/or to differential drug response.


 Bibliographic 
 selected publications
Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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  1. Yang MY, Hilton MB, Seaman S, Haines DC, Nagashima K, Burks CM, Tessarollo L, Ivanova PT, Brown HA, Umstead TM, Floros J, Chroneos ZC, St Croix B. Essential regulation of lung surfactant homeostasis by the orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR116. Cell Rep. 2013 May 30; 3(5):1457-64.
    View in: PubMed
  2. Noutsios GT, Silveyra P, Bhatti F, Floros J. Exon B of human surfactant protein A2 mRNA, alone or within its surrounding sequences, interacts with 14-3-3; role of cis-elements and secondary structure. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2013 Jun 1; 304(11):L722-35.
    View in: PubMed
  3. Silveyra P, Floros J. Genetic complexity of the human surfactant-associated proteins SP-A1 and SP-A2. Gene. 2013 Dec 1; 531(2):126-32.
    View in: PubMed
  4. Phelps DS, Umstead TM, Floros J. Sex differences in the response of the alveolar macrophage proteome to treatment with exogenous surfactant protein-A. Proteome Sci. 2012; 10(1):44.
    View in: PubMed
  5. Macneill C, de Guzman G, Sousa GE, Umstead TM, Phelps DS, Floros J, Ahn K, Weisz J. Cyclic changes in the level of the innate immune molecule, surfactant protein-a, and cytokines in vaginal fluid. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2012 Sep; 68(3):244-50.
    View in: PubMed
  6. Silveyra P, Floros J. Air pollution and epigenetics: effects on SP-A and innate host defence in the lung. Swiss Med Wkly. 2012; 142:w13579.
    View in: PubMed
  7. Durrani F, Phelps DS, Weisz J, Silveyra P, Hu S, Mikerov AN, Floros J. Gonadal hormones and oxidative stress interaction differentially affects survival of male and female mice after lung Klebsiella pneumoniae infection. Exp Lung Res. 2012 May; 38(4):165-72.
    View in: PubMed
  8. Mikerov AN, Hu S, Durrani F, Gan X, Wang G, Umstead TM, Phelps DS, Floros J. Impact of sex and ozone exposure on the course of pneumonia in wild type and SP-A (-/-) mice. Microb Pathog. 2012 Apr; 52(4):239-49.
    View in: PubMed
  9. Floros J, Londono D, Gordon D, Silveyra P, Diangelo SL, Viscardi RM, Worthen GS, Shenberger J, Wang G, Lin Z, Thomas NJ. IL-18R1 and IL-18RAP SNPs may be associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia in African-American infants. Pediatr Res. 2012 Jan; 71(1):107-14.
    View in: PubMed
  10. Silveyra P, Floros J. Genetic variant associations of human SP-A and SP-D with acute and chronic lung injury. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2012; 17:407-29.
    View in: PubMed
  11. Phelps DS, Umstead TM, Quintero OA, Yengo CM, Floros J. In vivo rescue of alveolar macrophages from SP-A knockout mice with exogenous SP-A nearly restores a wild type intracellular proteome; actin involvement. Proteome Sci. 2011; 9:67.
    View in: PubMed
  12. Mikerov AN, Cooper TK, Wang G, Hu S, Umstead TM, Phelps DS, Floros J. Histopathologic evaluation of lung and extrapulmonary tissues show sex differences in Klebsiella pneumoniae - infected mice under different exposure conditions. Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol. 2011 Sep 30; 3(3):176-90.
    View in: PubMed
  13. Silveyra P, Raval M, Simmons B, Diangelo S, Wang G, Floros J. The untranslated exon B of human surfactant protein A2 mRNAs is an enhancer for transcription and translation. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2011 Nov; 301(5):L795-803.
    View in: PubMed
  14. Lin Z, John G, Hegarty JP, Berg A, Yu W, Wang Y, Kelly AA, Peterson BZ, Poritz LS, Floros J, Koltun WA. Genetic variants and monoallelic expression of surfactant protein-D in inflammatory bowel disease. Ann Hum Genet. 2011 Sep; 75(5):559-68.
    View in: PubMed
  15. Wang Y, Voelker DR, Lugogo NL, Wang G, Floros J, Ingram JL, Chu HW, Church TD, Kandasamy P, Fertel D, Wright JR, Kraft M. Surfactant protein A is defective in abrogating inflammation in asthma. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2011 Oct; 301(4):L598-606.
    View in: PubMed
  16. Floros J, Thomas NJ. Surfactant protein genetics in community-acquired pneumonia: balancing the host inflammatory state. Crit Care. 2011; 15(2):156.
    View in: PubMed
  17. Silveyra P, Wang G, Floros J. Human SP-A1 (SFTPA1) variant-specific 3' UTRs and poly(A) tail differentially affect the in vitro translation of a reporter gene. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2010 Oct; 299(4):L523-34.
    View in: PubMed
  18. Ali M, Umstead TM, Haque R, Mikerov AN, Freeman WM, Floros J, Phelps DS. Differences in the BAL proteome after Klebsiella pneumoniae infection in wild type and SP-A-/- mice. Proteome Sci. 2010; 8:34.
    View in: PubMed
  19. Wang G, Guo X, Diangelo S, Thomas NJ, Floros J. Humanized SFTPA1 and SFTPA2 transgenic mice reveal functional divergence of SP-A1 and SP-A2: formation of tubular myelin in vivo requires both gene products. J Biol Chem. 2010 Apr 16; 285(16):11998-2010.
    View in: PubMed
  20. Undar A, Pauliks L, Clark JB, Zahn J, Rosenberg G, Kunselman AR, Sun Q, Pekkan K, Saliba K, Carney E, Thomas N, Freeman W, Vrana K, El-Banayosy A, Ural SH, Wilson R, Umstead TM, Floros J, Phelps DS, Weiss W, Snyder A, Yang S, Kimatian S, Cyran SE, Chinchilli VM, Guan Y, Rider A, Haines N, Rogerson A, Alkan-Bozkaya T, Akcevin A, Sun K, Wang S, Cun L, Myers JL. Penn State Hershey--center for pediatric cardiovascular research. Artif Organs. 2009 Nov; 33(11):883-7.
    View in: PubMed
  21. Thomas NJ, DiAngelo S, Hess JC, Fan R, Ball MW, Geskey JM, Willson DF, Floros J. Transmission of surfactant protein variants and haplotypes in children hospitalized with respiratory syncytial virus. Pediatr Res. 2009 Jul; 66(1):70-3.
    View in: PubMed
  22. Haque R, Umstead TM, Freeman WM, Floros J, Phelps DS. The impact of surfactant protein-A on ozone-induced changes in the mouse bronchoalveolar lavage proteome. Proteome Sci. 2009; 7:12.
    View in: PubMed
  23. Wang G, Guo X, Silveyra P, Kimball SR, Floros J. Cap-independent translation of human SP-A 5'-UTR variants: a double-loop structure and cis-element contribution. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2009 Apr; 296(4):L635-47.
    View in: PubMed
  24. Floros J, Wang G, Mikerov AN. Genetic complexity of the human innate host defense molecules, surfactant protein A1 (SP-A1) and SP-A2--impact on function. Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr. 2009; 19(2):125-37.
    View in: PubMed
  25. Vaid M, Floros J. Surfactant protein DNA methylation: a new entrant in the field of lung cancer diagnostics? (Review). Oncol Rep. 2009 Jan; 21(1):3-11.
    View in: PubMed
  26. Haque R, Umstead TM, Ahn K, Phelps DS, Floros J. Effect of low doses of lipopolysaccharide prior to ozone exposure on bronchoalveolar lavage: Differences between wild type and surfactant protein A-deficient mice. Pneumon. 2009; 22(2):143-155.
    View in: PubMed
  27. Mikerov AN, Haque R, Gan X, Guo X, Phelps DS, Floros J. Ablation of SP-A has a negative impact on the susceptibility of mice to Klebsiella pneumoniae infection after ozone exposure: sex differences. Respir Res. 2008; 9:77.
    View in: PubMed
  28. Mikerov AN, Gan X, Umstead TM, Miller L, Chinchilli VM, Phelps DS, Floros J. Sex differences in the impact of ozone on survival and alveolar macrophage function of mice after Klebsiella pneumoniae infection. Respir Res. 2008; 9:24.
    View in: PubMed
  29. Mikerov AN, Umstead TM, Gan X, Huang W, Guo X, Wang G, Phelps DS, Floros J. Impact of ozone exposure on the phagocytic activity of human surfactant protein A (SP-A) and SP-A variants. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2008 Jan; 294(1):L121-30.
    View in: PubMed
  30. Wang G, Taneva S, Keough KM, Floros J. Differential effects of human SP-A1 and SP-A2 variants on phospholipid monolayers containing surfactant protein B. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007 Sep; 1768(9):2060-9.
    View in: PubMed
  31. Lin Z, Thomas NJ, Bibikova M, Seifart C, Wang Y, Guo X, Wang G, Vollmer E, Goldmann T, Garcia EW, Zhou L, Fan JB, Floros J. DNA methylation markers of surfactant proteins in lung cancer. Int J Oncol. 2007 Jul; 31(1):181-91.
    View in: PubMed
  32. Wang G, Myers C, Mikerov A, Floros J. Effect of cysteine 85 on biochemical properties and biological function of human surfactant protein A variants. Biochemistry. 2007 Jul 17; 46(28):8425-35.
    View in: PubMed
  33. Pavlovic J, Floros J, Phelps DS, Wigdahl B, Welsh P, Weisz J, Shearer DA, Leure du Pree A, Myers R, Howett MK. Differentiation of xenografted human fetal lung parenchyma. Early Hum Dev. 2008 Mar; 84(3):181-93.
    View in: PubMed
  34. Thomas NJ, Fan R, Diangelo S, Hess JC, Floros J. Haplotypes of the surfactant protein genes A and D as susceptibility factors for the development of respiratory distress syndrome. Acta Paediatr. 2007 Jul; 96(7):985-9.
    View in: PubMed
  35. Mikerov AN, White M, Hartshorn K, Wang G, Floros J. Inhibition of hemagglutination activity of influenza A viruses by SP-A1 and SP-A2 variants expressed in CHO cells. Med Microbiol Immunol. 2008 Mar; 197(1):9-12.
    View in: PubMed
  36. Stagos D, Umstead TM, Phelps DS, Skaltsounis L, Haroutounian S, Floros J, Kouretas D. Inhibition of ozone-induced SP-A oxidation by plant polyphenols. Free Radic Res. 2007 Mar; 41(3):357-66.
    View in: PubMed
  37. Mikerov AN, Wang G, Umstead TM, Zacharatos M, Thomas NJ, Phelps DS, Floros J. Surfactant protein A2 (SP-A2) variants expressed in CHO cells stimulate phagocytosis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa more than do SP-A1 variants. Infect Immun. 2007 Mar; 75(3):1403-12.
    View in: PubMed
  38. Haque R, Umstead TM, Ponnuru P, Guo X, Hawgood S, Phelps DS, Floros J. Role of surfactant protein-A (SP-A) in lung injury in response to acute ozone exposure of SP-A deficient mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2007 Apr 1; 220(1):72-82.
    View in: PubMed
  39. Tagaram HR, Wang G, Umstead TM, Mikerov AN, Thomas NJ, Graff GR, Hess JC, Thomassen MJ, Kavuru MS, Phelps DS, Floros J. Characterization of a human surfactant protein A1 (SP-A1) gene-specific antibody; SP-A1 content variation among individuals of varying age and pulmonary health. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2007 May; 292(5):L1052-63.
    View in: PubMed
  40. Floros J, Thomas NJ, Liu W, Papagaroufalis C, Xanthou M, Pereira S, Fan R, Guo X, Diangelo S, Pavlovic J. Family-based association tests suggest linkage between surfactant protein B (SP-B) (and flanking region) and respiratory distress syndrome (RDS): SP-B haplotypes and alleles from SP-B-linked loci are risk factors for RDS. Pediatr Res. 2006 Apr; 59(4 Pt 1):616-21.
    View in: PubMed
  41. Bibikova M, Lin Z, Zhou L, Chudin E, Garcia EW, Wu B, Doucet D, Thomas NJ, Wang Y, Vollmer E, Goldmann T, Seifart C, Jiang W, Barker DL, Chee MS, Floros J, Fan JB. High-throughput DNA methylation profiling using universal bead arrays. Genome Res. 2006 Mar; 16(3):383-93.
    View in: PubMed
  42. Pavlovic J, Papagaroufalis C, Xanthou M, Liu W, Fan R, Thomas NJ, Apostolidou I, Papathoma E, Megaloyianni E, DiAngelo S, Floros J. Genetic variants of surfactant proteins A, B, C, and D in bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Dis Markers. 2006; 22(5-6):277-91.
    View in: PubMed
  43. Seifart C, Lin HM, Seifart U, Plagens A, DiAngelo S, von Wichert P, Floros J. Rare SP-A alleles and the SP-A1-6A(4) allele associate with risk for lung carcinoma. Clin Genet. 2005 Aug; 68(2):128-36.
    View in: PubMed
  44. Lin Z, Thomas NJ, Wang Y, Guo X, Seifart C, Shakoor H, Floros J. Deletions within a CA-repeat-rich region of intron 4 of the human SP-B gene affect mRNA splicing. Biochem J. 2005 Jul 15; 389(Pt 2):403-12.
    View in: PubMed
  45. Wang G, Guo X, Floros J. Differences in the translation efficiency and mRNA stability mediated by 5'-UTR splice variants of human SP-A1 and SP-A2 genes. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2005 Sep; 289(3):L497-508.
    View in: PubMed
  46. Lin Z, Wang Y, Zhu K, Floros J. Differential allele expression of host defense genes, pulmonary surfactant protein-A and osteopontin, in rat. Mol Immunol. 2004 Nov; 41(12):1155-65.
    View in: PubMed
  47. Janic B, Umstead TM, Phelps DS, Floros J. Modulatory effects of ozone on THP-1 cells in response to SP-A stimulation. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2005 Feb; 288(2):L317-25.
    View in: PubMed
  48. Mikerov AN, Umstead TM, Huang W, Liu W, Phelps DS, Floros J. SP-A1 and SP-A2 variants differentially enhance association of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with rat alveolar macrophages. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2005 Jan; 288(1):L150-8.
    View in: PubMed
  49. Ding J, Umstead TM, Floros J, Phelps DS. Factors affecting SP-A-mediated phagocytosis in human monocytic cell lines. Respir Med. 2004 Jul; 98(7):637-50.
    View in: PubMed
  50. Wang G, Bates-Kenney SR, Tao JQ, Phelps DS, Floros J. Differences in biochemical properties and in biological function between human SP-A1 and SP-A2 variants, and the impact of ozone-induced oxidation. Biochemistry. 2004 Apr 13; 43(14):4227-39.
    View in: PubMed
  51. MacNeill C, Umstead TM, Phelps DS, Lin Z, Floros J, Shearer DA, Weisz J. Surfactant protein A, an innate immune factor, is expressed in the vaginal mucosa and is present in vaginal lavage fluid. Immunology. 2004 Jan; 111(1):91-9.
    View in: PubMed
  52. Bernhard W, Haslam PL, Floros J. From birds to humans: new concepts on airways relative to alveolar surfactant. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2004 Jan; 30(1):6-11.
    View in: PubMed
  53. Huang W, Wang G, Phelps DS, Al-Mondhiry H, Floros J. Human SP-A genetic variants and bleomycin-induced cytokine production by THP-1 cells: effect of ozone-induced SP-A oxidation. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2004 Mar; 286(3):L546-53.
    View in: PubMed
  54. Hu B, Jennings JH, Sonstein J, Floros J, Todt JC, Polak T, Curtis JL. Resident murine alveolar and peritoneal macrophages differ in adhesion of apoptotic thymocytes. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2004 May; 30(5):687-93.
    View in: PubMed
  55. Selman M, Lin HM, Montaño M, Jenkins AL, Estrada A, Lin Z, Wang G, DiAngelo SL, Guo X, Umstead TM, Lang CM, Pardo A, Phelps DS, Floros J. Surfactant protein A and B genetic variants predispose to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Hum Genet. 2003 Nov; 113(6):542-50.
    View in: PubMed
  56. Liu W, Bentley CM, Floros J. Study of human SP-A, SP-B and SP-D loci: allele frequencies, linkage disequilibrium and heterozygosity in different races and ethnic groups. BMC Genet. 2003 Aug 11; 4:13.
    View in: PubMed
  57. Matthay MA, Zimmerman GA, Esmon C, Bhattacharya J, Coller B, Doerschuk CM, Floros J, Gimbrone MA, Hoffman E, Hubmayr RD, Leppert M, Matalon S, Munford R, Parsons P, Slutsky AS, Tracey KJ, Ward P, Gail DB, Harabin AL. Future research directions in acute lung injury: summary of a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute working group. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2003 Apr 1; 167(7):1027-35.
    View in: PubMed
  58. Floros J, Pavlovic J. Genetics of acute respiratory distress syndrome: challenges, approaches, surfactant proteins as candidate genes. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2003 Apr; 24(2):161-8.
    View in: PubMed
  59. Janic B, Umstead TM, Phelps DS, Floros J. An in vitro cell model system for the study of the effects of ozone and other gaseous agents on phagocytic cells. J Immunol Methods. 2003 Jan 15; 272(1-2):125-34.
    View in: PubMed
  60. Wang G, Guo X, Floros J. Human SP-A 3'-UTR variants mediate differential gene expression in basal levels and in response to dexamethasone. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2003 May; 284(5):L738-48.
    View in: PubMed
  61. Wang G, Christensen ND, Wigdahl B, Guttentag SH, Floros J. Differences in N-linked glycosylation between human surfactant protein-B variants of the C or T allele at the single-nucleotide polymorphism at position 1580: implications for disease. Biochem J. 2003 Jan 1; 369(Pt 1):179-84.
    View in: PubMed
  62. Lin Z, Floros J. Heterogeneous allele expression of pulmonary SP-D gene in rat large intestine and other tissues. Physiol Genomics. 2002 Dec 3; 11(3):235-43.
    View in: PubMed
  63. García-Verdugo I, Wang G, Floros J, Casals C. Structural analysis and lipid-binding properties of recombinant human surfactant protein a derived from one or both genes. Biochemistry. 2002 Nov 26; 41(47):14041-53.
    View in: PubMed
  64. Huang W, Wang G, Phelps DS, Al-Mondhiry H, Floros J. Combined SP-A-bleomycin effect on cytokines by THP-1 cells: impact of surfactant lipids on this effect. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2002 Jul; 283(1):L94-L102.
    View in: PubMed
  65. Wang G, Umstead TM, Phelps DS, Al-Mondhiry H, Floros J. The effect of ozone exposure on the ability of human surfactant protein a variants to stimulate cytokine production. Environ Health Perspect. 2002 Jan; 110(1):79-84.
    View in: PubMed
  66. Umstead TM, Phelps DS, Wang G, Floros J, Tarkington BK. In vitro exposure of proteins to ozone. Toxicol Mech Methods. 2002; 12(1):1-16.
    View in: PubMed
  67. Fan R, Floros J, Xiong M. Models and tests of linkage and association studies of quantitative trait locus for multi-allele marker Loci. Hum Hered. 2002; 53(3):130-45.
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  68. Seifart C, Plagens A, Brödje D, Müller B, von Wichert P, Floros J. Surfactant protein B intron 4 variation in German patients with COPD and acute respiratory failure. Dis Markers. 2002; 18(3):129-36.
    View in: PubMed
  69. Floros J, Hoover RR. Genetics of the hydrophilic surfactant proteins A and D. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998 Nov 19; 1408(2-3):312-22.
    View in: PubMed
  70. Geschwind HJ, Kern MJ, Vandormael MG, Blair JD, Deligonul U, Kennedy HL. Efficiency and safety of optically modified fiber tips for laser angioplasty. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1987 Sep; 10(3):655-61.
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  71. Hardwick JP, Song BJ, Huberman E, Gonzalez FJ. Isolation, complementary DNA sequence, and regulation of rat hepatic lauric acid omega-hydroxylase (cytochrome P-450LA omega). Identification of a new cytochrome P-450 gene family. J Biol Chem. 1987 Jan 15; 262(2):801-10.
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  72. Leopold NA, Kagel MC. Dysphagia in Huntington's disease. Arch Neurol. 1985 Jan; 42(1):57-60.
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