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Edward Bixler

TitleProfessor
InstitutionCollege of Medicine
DepartmentPsychiatry
Address500 University Drive Hershey PA 17033
Mailbox: H073
Phone7175315556
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    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse overview
    PREFERRED TITLE/ROLE:

    Professor of Psychiatry, Vice- Chair of Research

    GRADUATE PROGRAM AFFILIATIONS:

    Neuroscience

    EDUCATION:

    Ph.D., University of New Mexico, 1970

    NARRATIVE:

    Dr. Bixler's major research interest in the neurosciences is the electrophysiology of sleep and its disorders. His approach in sleep research is on two levels using representative population cohorts (adult and child). On the first level, he studies sleep in normal individuals and those with sleep disorders and identifies the differences between these two populations. Relevant parameters in the study of the electrophysiology of sleep include the distribution of sleep states, as well as EEG frequency bands, the patterns of wakefulness within a nocturnal sleep period, and the neurophysiologic indicators of disturbed sleep, such as insomnia or sleep-disordered breathing. The second level of his studies is the identification of any relationship that each of these neurophysiologic indicators has with various factors, such as age, gender, cardiovascular, metabolic, exercise, nutrition, cognitive/behavioral, psychopathologic factors or mortality and the presence of a sleep disorder. In this way the electrophysiologic pattern of sleep, which is related to a sleep disorder, can be identified and lead to a better understanding of its etiology.


    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Frye SS, Fernandez-Mendoza J, Calhoun SL, Gaines J, Sawyer MD, He F, Liao D, Vgontzas AN, Bixler EO. Neurocognitive and behavioral functioning in adolescents with sleep-disordered breathing: a population-based, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry study. Int J Obes (Lond). 2018 Jan; 42(1):95-101. PMID: 28924264.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Li Y, Vgontzas A, Kritikou I, Fernandez-Mendoza J, Basta M, Pejovic S, Gaines J, Bixler EO. Psychomotor Vigilance Test and Its Association With Daytime Sleepiness and Inflammation in Sleep Apnea: Clinical Implications. J Clin Sleep Med. 2017 Sep 15; 13(9):1049-1056. PMID: 28728622.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Gaines J, Kong L, Li M, Fernandez-Mendoza J, Bixler EO, Basta M, Vgontzas AN. C-reactive protein improves the ability to detect cardiometabolic risk in mild-to-moderate obstructive sleep apnea. Physiol Rep. 2017 Sep; 5(18). PMID: 28947597.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Bixler EO, Gaines J, Vgontzas AN. Obstructive sleep apnoea and depression: is there an association? Eur Respir J. 2017 Jun; 49(6). PMID: 28572131.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Fernandez-Mendoza J, He F, LaGrotte C, Vgontzas AN, Liao D, Bixler EO. Impact of the Metabolic Syndrome on Mortality is Modified by Objective Short Sleep Duration. J Am Heart Assoc. 2017 May 17; 6(5). PMID: 28515112.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Gaines J, Vgontzas AN, Fernandez-Mendoza J, He F, Calhoun SL, Liao D, Bixler EO. Increased inflammation from childhood to adolescence predicts sleep apnea in boys: A preliminary study. Brain Behav Immun. 2017 Aug; 64:259-265. PMID: 28432036.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Fernandez-Mendoza J, He F, Vgontzas AN, Liao D, Bixler EO. Objective short sleep duration modifies the relationship between hypertension and all-cause mortality. J Hypertens. 2017 Apr; 35(4):830-836. PMID: 28253221.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Waxmonsky JG, Mayes SD, Calhoun SL, Fernandez-Mendoza J, Waschbusch DA, Bendixsen BH, Bixler EO. The association between Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder symptoms and sleep problems in children with and without ADHD. Sleep Med. 2017 Sep; 37:180-186. PMID: 28899532.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Li Y, Vgontzas AN, Fernandez-Mendoza J, Kritikou I, Basta M, Pejovic S, Gaines J, Bixler EO. Objective, but Not Subjective, Sleepiness is Associated With Inflammation in Sleep Apnea. Sleep. 2017 02 01; 40(2). PMID: 28364485.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Calhoun SL, Fernandez-Mendoza J, Vgontzas AN, Mayes SD, Liao D, Bixler EO. Behavioral Profiles Associated with Objective Sleep Duration in Young Children with Insomnia Symptoms. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2017 Feb; 45(2):337-344. PMID: 27245765.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Fernandez-Mendoza J, Baker JH, Vgontzas AN, Gaines J, Liao D, Bixler EO. Insomnia symptoms with objective short sleep duration are associated with systemic inflammation in adolescents. Brain Behav Immun. 2017 Mar; 61:110-116. PMID: 28041986.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Kritikou I, Vgontzas AN, Rapp MA, Bixler EO. Anti-Ma1- and Anti-Ma2-Associated Encephalitis Manifesting With Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Disorder and Narcolepsy With Cataplexy: A Case Report. Biol Psychiatry. 2016 Dec 23. PMID: 28117047.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Fernandez-Mendoza J, Calhoun SL, Vgontzas AN, Li Y, Gaines J, Liao D, Bixler EO. Insomnia Phenotypes Based on Objective Sleep Duration in Adolescents: Depression Risk and Differential Behavioral Profiles. Brain Sci. 2016 Dec 13; 6(4). PMID: 27983580.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Lewin DS, Wolfson AR, Bixler EO, Carskadon MA. Duration Isn't Everything. Healthy Sleep in Children and Teens: Duration, Individual Need and Timing. J Clin Sleep Med. 2016 Nov 15; 12(11):1439-1441. PMID: 27784417.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Gaines J, Vgontzas AN, Fernandez-Mendoza J, Calhoun SL, He F, Liao D, Sawyer MD, Bixler EO. Inflammation mediates the association between visceral adiposity and obstructive sleep apnea in adolescents. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Nov 01; 311(5):E851-E858. PMID: 27651112.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Mayes SD, Calhoun SL, Waxmonsky JG, Kokotovich C, Baweja R, Lockridge R, Bixler EO. Demographic Differences in Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder Symptoms in ADHD, Autism, and General Population Samples. J Atten Disord. 2016 Aug 22. PMID: 27549781.
      View in: PubMed
    17. LaGrotte C, Fernandez-Mendoza J, Calhoun SL, Liao D, Bixler EO, Vgontzas AN. The relative association of obstructive sleep apnea, obesity and excessive daytime sleepiness with incident depression: a longitudinal, population-based study. Int J Obes (Lond). 2016 Sep; 40(9):1397-404. PMID: 27143032; PMCID: PMC5014694 [Available on 03/01/17].
    18. Fernandez-Mendoza J, Li Y, Vgontzas AN, Fang J, Gaines J, Calhoun SL, Liao D, Bixler EO. Insomnia is Associated with Cortical Hyperarousal as Early as Adolescence. Sleep. 2016 05 01; 39(5):1029-36. PMID: 26951400; PMCID: PMC4835300 [Available on 11/01/16].
    19. Petrovic-Dovat L, Fausnight T, White AM, Zeiger T, Bansal PS, Garg N, Annapareddy J, Iriana S, Slattery MJ, Meyer RE, Bixler EO. Degree of anxiety in food allergic children in a tertiary care center. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2016 06; 116(6):528-32. PMID: 27066944.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Bixler EO, Fernandez-Mendoza J, Liao D, Calhoun S, Rodriguez-Colon SM, Gaines J, He F, Vgontzas AN. Natural history of sleep disordered breathing in prepubertal children transitioning to adolescence. Eur Respir J. 2016 May; 47(5):1402-9. PMID: 26846837.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Mayes SD, Waxmonsky JD, Calhoun SL, Bixler EO. Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder Symptoms and Association with Oppositional Defiant and Other Disorders in a General Population Child Sample. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2016 Mar; 26(2):101-6. PMID: 26745442; PMCID: PMC4800381 [Available on 03/01/17].
    22. Bixler EO, Vgontzas AN, Gaines J, Fernandez-Mendoza J, Calhoun SL, Liao D. Moderate sleep apnoea: a "silent" disorder, or not a disorder at all? Eur Respir J. 2016 Jan; 47(1):23-6. PMID: 26721959.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Kritikou I, Basta M, Vgontzas AN, Pejovic S, Fernandez-Mendoza J, Liao D, Bixler EO, Gaines J, Chrousos GP. Sleep apnoea and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in men and women: effects of continuous positive airway pressure. Eur Respir J. 2016 Feb; 47(2):531-40. PMID: 26541531.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Mayes SD, Mathiowetz C, Kokotovich C, Waxmonsky J, Baweja R, Calhoun SL, Bixler EO. Stability of Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder Symptoms (Irritable-Angry Mood and Temper Outbursts) Throughout Childhood and Adolescence in a General Population Sample. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2015 Nov; 43(8):1543-9. PMID: 26004122.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Gaines J, Vgontzas AN, Fernandez-Mendoza J, Basta M, Pejovic S, He F, Bixler EO. Short- and Long-Term Sleep Stability in Insomniacs and Healthy Controls. Sleep. 2015 Nov 01; 38(11):1727-34. PMID: 26237768; PMCID: PMC4813370.
    26. He F, Bixler EO, Liao J, Berg A, Imamura Kawasawa Y, Fernandez-Mendoza J, Vgontzas AN, Liao D. Habitual sleep variability, mediated by nutrition intake, is associated with abdominal obesity in adolescents. Sleep Med. 2015 Dec; 16(12):1489-94. PMID: 26611945; PMCID: PMC4662770 [Available on 12/01/16].
    27. He F, Bixler EO, Berg A, Imamura Kawasawa Y, Vgontzas AN, Fernandez-Mendoza J, Yanosky J, Liao D. Habitual sleep variability, not sleep duration, is associated with caloric intake in adolescents. Sleep Med. 2015 Jul; 16(7):856-61. PMID: 26002758; PMCID: PMC4466046.
    28. Fernandez-Mendoza J, Vgontzas AN, Kritikou I, Calhoun SL, Liao D, Bixler EO. Natural history of excessive daytime sleepiness: role of obesity, weight loss, depression, and sleep propensity. Sleep. 2015 Mar 01; 38(3):351-60. PMID: 25581913; PMCID: PMC4335535.
    29. Fernandez-Mendoza J, Shea S, Vgontzas AN, Calhoun SL, Liao D, Bixler EO. Insomnia and incident depression: role of objective sleep duration and natural history. J Sleep Res. 2015 Aug; 24(4):390-8. PMID: 25728794.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Leslie DL, Milchak W, Gastfriend DR, Herschman PL, Bixler EO, Velott DL, Meyer RE. Effects of injectable extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) for opioid dependence on residential rehabilitation outcomes and early follow-up. Am J Addict. 2015 Apr; 24(3):265-70. PMID: 25655226.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Rodríguez-Colón SM, He F, Bixler EO, Fernandez-Mendoza J, Vgontzas AN, Calhoun S, Zheng ZJ, Liao D. Metabolic syndrome burden in apparently healthy adolescents is adversely associated with cardiac autonomic modulation--Penn State Children Cohort. Metabolism. 2015 May; 64(5):626-32. PMID: 25684658; PMCID: PMC4372460.
    32. Li Y, Vgontzas AN, Fernandez-Mendoza J, Bixler EO, Sun Y, Zhou J, Ren R, Li T, Tang X. Insomnia with physiological hyperarousal is associated with hypertension. Hypertension. 2015 Mar; 65(3):644-50. PMID: 25624338.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Bunce SC, Harris JD, Bixler EO, Taylor M, Muelly E, Deneke E, Thompson KW, Meyer RE. Possible evidence for re-regulation of HPA axis and brain reward systems over time in treatment in prescription opioid-dependent patients. J Addict Med. 2015 Jan-Feb; 9(1):53-60. PMID: 25469651.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Gaines J, Vgontzas AN, Fernandez-Mendoza J, Kritikou I, Basta M, Bixler EO. Gender differences in the association of sleep apnea and inflammation. Brain Behav Immun. 2015 Jul; 47:211-7. PMID: 25535861; PMCID: PMC4468024.
    35. Rodríguez-Colón SM, He F, Bixler EO, Fernandez-Mendoza J, Vgontzas AN, Calhoun S, Zheng ZJ, Liao D. Sleep variability and cardiac autonomic modulation in adolescents - Penn State Child Cohort (PSCC) study. Sleep Med. 2015 Jan; 16(1):67-72. PMID: 25555635; PMCID: PMC4306639.
    36. Rodríguez-Colón S, He F, Bixler EO, Fernandez-Mendoza J, Vgontzas AN, Berg A, Kawasawa YI, Liao D. The circadian pattern of cardiac autonomic modulation and obesity in adolescents. Clin Auton Res. 2014 Dec; 24(6):265-73. PMID: 25358502; PMCID: PMC4267540.
    37. Liao D, Rodríguez-Colón SM, He F, Bixler EO. Childhood obesity and autonomic dysfunction: risk for cardiac morbidity and mortality. Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med. 2014 Oct; 16(10):342. PMID: 25143120; PMCID: PMC4159679.
    38. He F, Rodriguez-Colon S, Fernandez-Mendoza J, Vgontzas AN, Bixler EO, Berg A, Imamura Kawasawa Y, Sawyer MD, Liao D. Abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome burden in adolescents--Penn State Children Cohort study. J Clin Densitom. 2015 Jan-Mar; 18(1):30-6. PMID: 25220887; PMCID: PMC4314452.
    39. Mahr F, Farahmand P, Bixler EO, Domen RE, Moser EM, Nadeem T, Levine RL, Halmi KA. A national survey of eating disorder training. Int J Eat Disord. 2015 May; 48(4):443-5. PMID: 25047025.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Fernandez-Mendoza J, Shaffer ML, Olavarrieta-Bernardino S, Vgontzas AN, Calhoun SL, Bixler EO, Vela-Bueno A. Cognitive-emotional hyperarousal in the offspring of parents vulnerable to insomnia: a nuclear family study. J Sleep Res. 2014 Oct; 23(5):489-98. PMID: 24889269.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Fernandez-Mendoza J, Vgontzas AN, Calhoun SL, Vgontzas A, Tsaoussoglou M, Gaines J, Liao D, Chrousos GP, Bixler EO. Insomnia symptoms, objective sleep duration and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in children. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 May; 44(5):493-500. PMID: 24635035.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Calhoun SL, Fernandez-Mendoza J, Vgontzas AN, Liao D, Bixler EO. Prevalence of insomnia symptoms in a general population sample of young children and preadolescents: gender effects. Sleep Med. 2014 Jan; 15(1):91-5. PMID: 24333223; PMCID: PMC3912735.
    43. Vgontzas AN, Fernandez-Mendoza J, Miksiewicz T, Kritikou I, Shaffer ML, Liao D, Basta M, Bixler EO. Unveiling the longitudinal association between short sleep duration and the incidence of obesity: the Penn State Cohort. Int J Obes (Lond). 2014 Jun; 38(6):825-32. PMID: 24100421; PMCID: PMC3954466.
    44. Pejovic S, Basta M, Vgontzas AN, Kritikou I, Shaffer ML, Tsaoussoglou M, Stiffler D, Stefanakis Z, Bixler EO, Chrousos GP. Effects of recovery sleep after one work week of mild sleep restriction on interleukin-6 and cortisol secretion and daytime sleepiness and performance. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Oct 01; 305(7):E890-6. PMID: 23941878; PMCID: PMC3798707.
    45. Singareddy R, Krishnamurthy VB, Vgontzas AN, Fernandez-Mendoza J, Calhoun SL, Shaffer ML, Bixler EO. Subjective and objective sleep and self-harm behaviors in young children: a general population study. Psychiatry Res. 2013 Oct 30; 209(3):549-53. PMID: 23623452; PMCID: PMC3742723.
    46. Kritikou I, Basta M, Vgontzas AN, Pejovic S, Liao D, Tsaoussoglou M, Bixler EO, Stefanakis Z, Chrousos GP. Sleep apnoea, sleepiness, inflammation and insulin resistance in middle-aged males and females. Eur Respir J. 2014 Jan; 43(1):145-55. PMID: 23598957.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Vgontzas AN, Fernandez-Mendoza J, Liao D, Bixler EO. Insomnia with objective short sleep duration: the most biologically severe phenotype of the disorder. Sleep Med Rev. 2013 Aug; 17(4):241-54. PMID: 23419741; PMCID: PMC3672328.
    48. Thurtell MJ, Trotti LM, Bixler EO, Rye DB, Bliwise DL, Newman NJ, Biousse V, Bruce BB. Obstructive sleep apnea in idiopathic intracranial hypertension: comparison with matched population data. J Neurol. 2013 Jul; 260(7):1748-51. PMID: 23412355; PMCID: PMC3707935.
    49. Fernandez-Mendoza J, Vgontzas AN, Liao D, Shaffer ML, Vela-Bueno A, Basta M, Bixler EO. Response to poor sleep with normal sleep duration: a preventive effect on incident hypertension. Hypertension. 2013 Feb; 61(2):e12. PMID: 23444458.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Joshi A, Krishnamurthy VB, Purichia H, Hollar-Wilt L, Bixler E, Rapp M. "What's in a name?" Delirium by any other name would be as deadly. A review of the nature of delirium consultations. J Psychiatr Pract. 2012 Nov; 18(6):413-8. PMID: 23160246.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Fernandez-Mendoza J, Vgontzas AN, Liao D, Shaffer ML, Vela-Bueno A, Basta M, Bixler EO. Insomnia with objective short sleep duration and incident hypertension: the Penn State Cohort. Hypertension. 2012 Oct; 60(4):929-35. PMID: 22892811; PMCID: PMC3679545.
    52. Kritikou I, Basta M, Tappouni R, Pejovic S, Fernandez-Mendoza J, Nazir R, Shaffer ML, Liao D, Bixler EO, Chrousos GP, Vgontzas AN. Sleep apnoea and visceral adiposity in middle-aged male and female subjects. Eur Respir J. 2013 Mar; 41(3):601-9. PMID: 22743670.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Mayes SD, Gordon M, Calhoun SL, Bixler EO. Long-term temporal stability of measured inattention and impulsivity in typical and referred children. J Atten Disord. 2014 Jan; 18(1):23-30. PMID: 22689649.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Fernandez-Mendoza J, Vgontzas AN, Bixler EO, Singareddy R, Shaffer ML, Calhoun SL, Karataraki M, Vela-Bueno A, Liao D. Clinical and polysomnographic predictors of the natural history of poor sleep in the general population. Sleep. 2012 May 01; 35(5):689-97. PMID: 22547895; PMCID: PMC3321428.
    55. Calhoun SL, Fernandez-Mendoza J, Vgontzas AN, Mayes SD, Tsaoussoglou M, Rodriguez-Muñoz A, Bixler EO. Learning, attention/hyperactivity, and conduct problems as sequelae of excessive daytime sleepiness in a general population study of young children. Sleep. 2012 May 01; 35(5):627-32. PMID: 22547888; PMCID: PMC3321421.
    56. Singareddy R, Vgontzas AN, Fernandez-Mendoza J, Liao D, Calhoun S, Shaffer ML, Bixler EO. Risk factors for incident chronic insomnia: a general population prospective study. Sleep Med. 2012 Apr; 13(4):346-53. PMID: 22425576; PMCID: PMC3319648.
    57. Vgontzas AN, Fernandez-Mendoza J, Bixler EO, Singareddy R, Shaffer ML, Calhoun SL, Liao D, Basta M, Chrousos GP. Persistent insomnia: the role of objective short sleep duration and mental health. Sleep. 2012 Jan 01; 35(1):61-8. PMID: 22215919; PMCID: PMC3242689.
    58. Fernandez-Mendoza J, Rodriguez-Muñoz A, Vela-Bueno A, Olavarrieta-Bernardino S, Calhoun SL, Bixler EO, Vgontzas AN. The Spanish version of the Insomnia Severity Index: a confirmatory factor analysis. Sleep Med. 2012 Feb; 13(2):207-10. PMID: 22172961.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Calhoun SL, Vgontzas AN, Fernandez-Mendoza J, Mayes SD, Tsaoussoglou M, Basta M, Bixler EO. Prevalence and risk factors of excessive daytime sleepiness in a community sample of young children: the role of obesity, asthma, anxiety/depression, and sleep. Sleep. 2011 Apr 01; 34(4):503-7. PMID: 21461329; PMCID: PMC3065261.
    60. Li X, Shaffer ML, Rodríguez-Colón SM, He F, Bixler EO, Vgontzas AN, Wolbrette DL, Wu C, Ball RW, Liao D. Systemic inflammation and circadian rhythm of cardiac autonomic modulation. Auton Neurosci. 2011 Jul 05; 162(1-2):72-6. PMID: 21444250; PMCID: PMC3111893.
    61. He F, Shaffer ML, Rodriguez-Colon S, Yanosky JD, Bixler E, Cascio WE, Liao D. Acute effects of fine particulate air pollution on cardiac arrhythmia: the APACR study. Environ Health Perspect. 2011 Jul; 119(7):927-32. PMID: 21398201; PMCID: PMC3222979.
    62. Liao D, Shaffer ML, He F, Rodriguez-Colon S, Wu R, Whitsel EA, Bixler EO, Cascio WE. Fine particulate air pollution is associated with higher vulnerability to atrial fibrillation--the APACR study. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2011; 74(11):693-705. PMID: 21480044; PMCID: PMC3082849.
    63. Rodríguez-Colón SM, Li X, Shaffer ML, He F, Bixler EO, Vgontzas AN, Cai J, Liao D. Insulin resistance and circadian rhythm of cardiac autonomic modulation. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2010 Dec 06; 9:85. PMID: 21134267; PMCID: PMC3017516.
    64. Pejovic S, Vgontzas AN, Basta M, Tsaoussoglou M, Zoumakis E, Vgontzas A, Bixler EO, Chrousos GP. Leptin and hunger levels in young healthy adults after one night of sleep loss. J Sleep Res. 2010 Dec; 19(4):552-8. PMID: 20545838; PMCID: PMC3734788.
    65. He F, Shaffer ML, Rodriguez-Colon S, Bixler EO, Vgontzas AN, Williams RW, Wu R, Cascio WE, Liao D. Acute effects of fine particulate air pollution on ST segment height: a longitudinal study. Environ Health. 2010 Nov 08; 9:68. PMID: 21059260; PMCID: PMC2989950.
    66. Fernandez-Mendoza J, Calhoun SL, Bixler EO, Karataraki M, Liao D, Vela-Bueno A, Jose Ramos-Platon M, Sauder KA, Basta M, Vgontzas AN. Sleep misperception and chronic insomnia in the general population: role of objective sleep duration and psychological profiles. Psychosom Med. 2011 Jan; 73(1):88-97. PMID: 20978224; PMCID: PMC3408864.
    67. Rodríguez-Colón SM, Bixler EO, Li X, Vgontzas AN, Liao D. Obesity is associated with impaired cardiac autonomic modulation in children. Int J Pediatr Obes. 2011 Apr; 6(2):128-34. PMID: 20919806; PMCID: PMC3647369.
    68. Vgontzas AN, Liao D, Pejovic S, Calhoun S, Karataraki M, Basta M, Fernández-Mendoza J, Bixler EO. Insomnia with short sleep duration and mortality: the Penn State cohort. Sleep. 2010 Sep; 33(9):1159-64. PMID: 20857861; PMCID: PMC2938855.
    69. Singareddy R, Bixler EO, Vgontzas AN. Fatigue or daytime sleepiness? J Clin Sleep Med. 2010 Aug 15; 6(4):405. PMID: 20726292; PMCID: PMC2919674.
    70. Calhoun SL, Vgontzas AN, Mayes SD, Tsaoussoglou M, Sauder K, Mahr F, Karippot A, Wisner K, Bixler EO. Prenatal and perinatal complications: is it the link between race and SES and childhood sleep disordered breathing? J Clin Sleep Med. 2010 Jun 15; 6(3):264-9. PMID: 20572420; PMCID: PMC2883038.
    71. Vgontzas AN, Bixler EO, Basta M. Obesity and sleep: a bidirectional association? Sleep. 2010 May; 33(5):573-4. PMID: 20469796; PMCID: PMC2864869.
    72. Fernández-Mendoza J, Vela-Bueno A, Vgontzas AN, Ramos-Platón MJ, Olavarrieta-Bernardino S, Bixler EO, De la Cruz-Troca JJ. Cognitive-emotional hyperarousal as a premorbid characteristic of individuals vulnerable to insomnia. Psychosom Med. 2010 May; 72(4):397-403. PMID: 20368477.
      View in: PubMed
    73. Liao D, Li X, Rodriguez-Colon SM, Liu J, Vgontzas AN, Calhoun S, Bixler EO. Sleep-disordered breathing and cardiac autonomic modulation in children. Sleep Med. 2010 May; 11(5):484-8. PMID: 20362503; PMCID: PMC2857753.
    74. Fernandez-Mendoza J, Calhoun S, Bixler EO, Pejovic S, Karataraki M, Liao D, Vela-Bueno A, Ramos-Platon MJ, Sauder KA, Vgontzas AN. Insomnia with objective short sleep duration is associated with deficits in neuropsychological performance: a general population study. Sleep. 2010 Apr; 33(4):459-65. PMID: 20394314; PMCID: PMC2849784.
    75. Liao D, Li X, Vgontzas AN, Liu J, Rodriguez-Colon S, Calhoun S, Bixler EO. Sleep-disordered breathing in children is associated with impairment of sleep stage-specific shift of cardiac autonomic modulation. J Sleep Res. 2010 Jun; 19(2):358-65. PMID: 20337904; PMCID: PMC2894276.
    76. Singareddy R, Moole S, Calhoun S, Vocalan P, Tsaoussoglou M, Vgontzas AN, Bixler EO. Medical complaints are more common in young school-aged children with parent reported insomnia symptoms. J Clin Sleep Med. 2009 Dec 15; 5(6):549-53. PMID: 20465022; PMCID: PMC2792971.
    77. Vgontzas AN, Liao D, Bixler EO. Insomnia and hypertension. Sleep. 2009 Dec; 32(12):1547. PMID: 20041588; PMCID: PMC2786036.
    78. Tsaoussoglou M, Bixler EO, Calhoun S, Chrousos GP, Sauder K, Vgontzas AN. Sleep-disordered breathing in obese children is associated with prevalent excessive daytime sleepiness, inflammation, and metabolic abnormalities. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Jan; 95(1):143-50. PMID: 19926716; PMCID: PMC2805493.
    79. Bixler E. Sleep and society: an epidemiological perspective. Sleep Med. 2009 Sep; 10 Suppl 1:S3-6. PMID: 19660985.
      View in: PubMed
    80. Vgontzas AN, Liao D, Pejovic S, Calhoun S, Karataraki M, Bixler EO. Insomnia with objective short sleep duration is associated with type 2 diabetes: A population-based study. Diabetes Care. 2009 Nov; 32(11):1980-5. PMID: 19641160; PMCID: PMC2768214.
    81. Calhoun SL, Mayes SD, Vgontzas AN, Tsaoussoglou M, Shifflett LJ, Bixler EO. No relationship between neurocognitive functioning and mild sleep disordered breathing in a community sample of children. J Clin Sleep Med. 2009 Jun 15; 5(3):228-34. PMID: 19960643; PMCID: PMC2699167.
    82. Bixler EO, Vgontzas AN, Lin HM, Liao D, Calhoun S, Vela-Bueno A, Fedok F, Vlasic V, Graff G. Sleep disordered breathing in children in a general population sample: prevalence and risk factors. Sleep. 2009 Jun; 32(6):731-6. PMID: 19544748; PMCID: PMC2690559.
    83. Vgontzas AN, Liao D, Bixler EO, Chrousos GP, Vela-Bueno A. Insomnia with objective short sleep duration is associated with a high risk for hypertension. Sleep. 2009 Apr; 32(4):491-7. PMID: 19413143; PMCID: PMC2663863.
    84. Fernández-Mendoza J, Vela-Bueno A, Vgontzas AN, Olavarrieta-Bernardino S, Ramos-Platón MJ, Bixler EO, De la Cruz-Troca JJ. Nighttime sleep and daytime functioning correlates of the insomnia complaint in young adults. J Adolesc. 2009 Oct; 32(5):1059-74. PMID: 19328540.
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    85. Bixler EO, Papaliaga MN, Vgontzas AN, Lin HM, Pejovic S, Karataraki M, Vela-Bueno A, Chrousos GP. Women sleep objectively better than men and the sleep of young women is more resilient to external stressors: effects of age and menopause. J Sleep Res. 2009 Jun; 18(2):221-8. PMID: 19302341; PMCID: PMC3594776.
    86. Bixler EO, Vgontzas AN, Lin HM, Liao D, Calhoun S, Fedok F, Vlasic V, Graff G. Blood pressure associated with sleep-disordered breathing in a population sample of children. Hypertension. 2008 Nov; 52(5):841-6. PMID: 18838624; PMCID: PMC3597109.
    87. Vgontzas AN, Bixler EO, Chrousos GP, Pejovic S. Obesity and sleep disturbances: meaningful sub-typing of obesity. Arch Physiol Biochem. 2008 Oct; 114(4):224-36. PMID: 18946783.
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    88. Vela-Bueno A, Fernandez-Mendoza J, Olavarrieta-Bernardino S, Vgontzas AN, Bixler EO, de la Cruz-Troca JJ, Rodriguez-Muñoz A, Oliván-Palacios J. Sleep and behavioral correlates of napping among young adults: a survey of first-year university students in Madrid, Spain. J Am Coll Health. 2008 Sep-Oct; 57(2):150-8. PMID: 18809531.
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    89. Vgontzas AN, Bixler EO. Short sleep and obesity: are poor sleep, chronic stress, and unhealthy behaviors the link? Sleep. 2008 Sep; 31(9):1203. PMID: 18788643; PMCID: PMC2542973.
    90. Mayes SD, Calhoun SL, Bixler EO, Vgontzas AN, Mahr F, Hillwig-Garcia J, Elamir B, Edhere-Ekezie L, Parvin M. ADHD subtypes and comorbid anxiety, depression, and oppositional-defiant disorder: differences in sleep problems. J Pediatr Psychol. 2009 Apr; 34(3):328-37. PMID: 18676503; PMCID: PMC2722128.
    91. Vgontzas AN, Zoumakis E, Bixler EO, Lin HM, Collins B, Basta M, Pejovic S, Chrousos GP. Selective effects of CPAP on sleep apnoea-associated manifestations. Eur J Clin Invest. 2008 Aug; 38(8):585-95. PMID: 18627419; PMCID: PMC4528610.
    92. Mayes SD, Calhoun SL, Bixler EO, Vgontzas AN. Nonsignificance of sleep relative to IQ and neuropsychological scores in predicting academic achievement. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2008 Jun; 29(3):206-12. PMID: 18480734.
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    93. Guan Z, Vgontzas AN, Bixler EO, Fang J. Sleep is increased by weight gain and decreased by weight loss in mice. Sleep. 2008 May; 31(5):627-33. PMID: 18517033; PMCID: PMC2398754.
    94. Bonafide CP, Aucutt-Walter N, Divittore N, King T, Bixler EO, Cronin AJ. Remifentanil inhibits rapid eye movement sleep but not the nocturnal melatonin surge in humans. Anesthesiology. 2008 Apr; 108(4):627-33. PMID: 18362594.
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    95. Vela-Bueno A, Moreno-Jiménez B, Rodríguez-Muñoz A, Olavarrieta-Bernardino S, Fernández-Mendoza J, De la Cruz-Troca JJ, Bixler EO, Vgontzas AN. Insomnia and sleep quality among primary care physicians with low and high burnout levels. J Psychosom Res. 2008 Apr; 64(4):435-42. PMID: 18374744.
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    96. Basta M, Lin HM, Pejovic S, Sarrigiannidis A, Bixler E, Vgontzas AN. Lack of regular exercise, depression, and degree of apnea are predictors of excessive daytime sleepiness in patients with sleep apnea: sex differences. J Clin Sleep Med. 2008 Feb 15; 4(1):19-25. PMID: 18350958; PMCID: PMC2276821.
    97. Vgontzas AN, Lin HM, Papaliaga M, Calhoun S, Vela-Bueno A, Chrousos GP, Bixler EO. Short sleep duration and obesity: the role of emotional stress and sleep disturbances. Int J Obes (Lond). 2008 May; 32(5):801-9. PMID: 18253159.
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    98. Vgontzas AN, Pejovic S, Zoumakis E, Lin HM, Bentley CM, Bixler EO, Sarrigiannidis A, Basta M, Chrousos GP. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in obese men with and without sleep apnea: effects of continuous positive airway pressure therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Nov; 92(11):4199-207. PMID: 17785363.
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    99. Vgontzas AN, Bixler EO, Chrousos GP. Obesity-related sleepiness and fatigue: the role of the stress system and cytokines. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006 Nov; 1083:329-44. PMID: 17148748.
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    100. Vgontzas AN, Pejovic S, Zoumakis E, Lin HM, Bixler EO, Basta M, Fang J, Sarrigiannidis A, Chrousos GP. Daytime napping after a night of sleep loss decreases sleepiness, improves performance, and causes beneficial changes in cortisol and interleukin-6 secretion. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Jan; 292(1):E253-61. PMID: 16940468.
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    101. Vgontzas AN, Trakada G, Bixler EO, Lin HM, Pejovic S, Zoumakis E, Chrousos GP, Legro RS. Plasma interleukin 6 levels are elevated in polycystic ovary syndrome independently of obesity or sleep apnea. Metabolism. 2006 Aug; 55(8):1076-82. PMID: 16839844.
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    102. Jenkins JB, Omori T, Guan Z, Vgontzas AN, Bixler EO, Fang J. Sleep is increased in mice with obesity induced by high-fat food. Physiol Behav. 2006 Feb 28; 87(2):255-62. PMID: 16360185.
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    103. Guan Z, Vgontzas AN, Omori T, Peng X, Bixler EO, Fang J. Interleukin-6 levels fluctuate with the light-dark cycle in the brain and peripheral tissues in rats. Brain Behav Immun. 2005 Nov; 19(6):526-9. PMID: 16214023.
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    104. Smith GM, Davis RH, Bixler EO, Lin HM, Altenor A, Altenor RJ, Hardentstine BD, Kopchick GA. Pennsylvania State Hospital system's seclusion and restraint reduction program. Psychiatr Serv. 2005 Sep; 56(9):1115-22. PMID: 16148327.
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    105. Bixler EO, Vgontzas AN, Lin HM, Calhoun SL, Vela-Bueno A, Kales A. Excessive daytime sleepiness in a general population sample: the role of sleep apnea, age, obesity, diabetes, and depression. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Aug; 90(8):4510-5. PMID: 15941867.
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    106. Vgontzas AN, Bixler EO, Chrousos GP. Sleep apnea is a manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. Sleep Med Rev. 2005 Jun; 9(3):211-24. PMID: 15893251.
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    107. Vgontzas AN, Bixler EO, Lin HM, Prolo P, Trakada G, Chrousos GP. IL-6 and its circadian secretion in humans. Neuroimmunomodulation. 2005; 12(3):131-40. PMID: 15905620.
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    108. Vgontzas AN, Zoumakis E, Lin HM, Bixler EO, Trakada G, Chrousos GP. Marked decrease in sleepiness in patients with sleep apnea by etanercept, a tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonist. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Sep; 89(9):4409-13. PMID: 15356039.
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    109. Vgontzas AN, Zoumakis E, Bixler EO, Lin HM, Follett H, Kales A, Chrousos GP. Adverse effects of modest sleep restriction on sleepiness, performance, and inflammatory cytokines. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 May; 89(5):2119-26. PMID: 15126529.
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    110. Vgontzas AN, Bixler EO, Chrousos GP. Metabolic disturbances in obesity versus sleep apnoea: the importance of visceral obesity and insulin resistance. J Intern Med. 2003 Jul; 254(1):32-44. PMID: 12823641.
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    111. Vgontzas AN, Zoumakis M, Bixler EO, Lin HM, Prolo P, Vela-Bueno A, Kales A, Chrousos GP. Impaired nighttime sleep in healthy old versus young adults is associated with elevated plasma interleukin-6 and cortisol levels: physiologic and therapeutic implications. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 May; 88(5):2087-95. PMID: 12727959.
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    112. Kettl P, Bixler E. Changes in psychotropic drug use after September 11, 2001. Psychiatr Serv. 2002 Nov; 53(11):1475-6. PMID: 12407280.
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    113. Bixler EO, Vgontzas AN, Lin HM, Vela-Bueno A, Kales A. Insomnia in central Pennsylvania. J Psychosom Res. 2002 Jul; 53(1):589-92. PMID: 12127176.
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    114. Vgontzas AN, Zoumakis M, Papanicolaou DA, Bixler EO, Prolo P, Lin HM, Vela-Bueno A, Kales A, Chrousos GP. Chronic insomnia is associated with a shift of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor secretion from nighttime to daytime. Metabolism. 2002 Jul; 51(7):887-92. PMID: 12077736.
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    115. Kostinsky S, Bixler EO, Kettl PA. Threats of school violence in Pennsylvania after media coverage of the Columbine High School massacre: examining the role of imitation. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2001 Sep; 155(9):994-1001. PMID: 11529800.
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    116. Vgontzas AN, Bixler EO, Lin HM, Prolo P, Mastorakos G, Vela-Bueno A, Kales A, Chrousos GP. Chronic insomnia is associated with nyctohemeral activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis: clinical implications. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Aug; 86(8):3787-94. PMID: 11502812.
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    117. Vgontzas AN, Bixler EO, Wittman AM, Zachman K, Lin HM, Vela-Bueno A, Kales A, Chrousos GP. Middle-aged men show higher sensitivity of sleep to the arousing effects of corticotropin-releasing hormone than young men: clinical implications. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Apr; 86(4):1489-95. PMID: 11297573.
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    118. Bixler EO, Vgontzas AN, Lin HM, Ten Have T, Rein J, Vela-Bueno A, Kales A. Prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing in women: effects of gender. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001 Mar; 163(3 Pt 1):608-13. PMID: 11254512.
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    119. Cronin AJ, Keifer JC, Davies MF, King TS, Bixler EO. Postoperative sleep disturbance: influences of opioids and pain in humans. Sleep. 2001 Feb 01; 24(1):39-44. PMID: 11204052.
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    120. Vgontzas AN, Legro RS, Bixler EO, Grayev A, Kales A, Chrousos GP. Polycystic ovary syndrome is associated with obstructive sleep apnea and daytime sleepiness: role of insulin resistance. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Feb; 86(2):517-20. PMID: 11158002.
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    121. Cronin AJ, Keifer JC, Davies MF, King TS, Bixler EO. Melatonin secretion after surgery. Lancet. 2000 Oct 07; 356(9237):1244-5. PMID: 11072950.
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    122. Bixler EO, Vgontzas AN, Lin HM, Ten Have T, Leiby BE, Vela-Bueno A, Kales A. Association of hypertension and sleep-disordered breathing. Arch Intern Med. 2000 Aug 14-28; 160(15):2289-95. PMID: 10927725.
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    123. Vgontzas AN, Bixler EO, Papanicolaou DA, Chrousos GP. Chronic systemic inflammation in overweight and obese adults. JAMA. 2000 May 03; 283(17):2235; author reply 2236. PMID: 10807374.
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    124. Vgontzas AN, Bixler EO, Kales A, Criley C, Vela-Bueno A. Differences in nocturnal and daytime sleep between primary and psychiatric hypersomnia: diagnostic and treatment implications. Psychosom Med. 2000 Mar-Apr; 62(2):220-6. PMID: 10772401.
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    125. Vgontzas AN, Papanicolaou DA, Bixler EO, Hopper K, Lotsikas A, Lin HM, Kales A, Chrousos GP. Sleep apnea and daytime sleepiness and fatigue: relation to visceral obesity, insulin resistance, and hypercytokinemia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Mar; 85(3):1151-8. PMID: 10720054.
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    126. Vgontzas AN, Mastorakos G, Bixler EO, Kales A, Gold PW, Chrousos GP. Sleep deprivation effects on the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and growth axes: potential clinical implications. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1999 Aug; 51(2):205-15. PMID: 10468992.
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    127. Vgontzas AN, Papanicolaou DA, Bixler EO, Lotsikas A, Zachman K, Kales A, Prolo P, Wong ML, Licinio J, Gold PW, Hermida RC, Mastorakos G, Chrousos GP. Circadian interleukin-6 secretion and quantity and depth of sleep. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999 Aug; 84(8):2603-7. PMID: 10443646.
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    128. Vgontzas AN, Tsigos C, Bixler EO, Stratakis CA, Zachman K, Kales A, Vela-Bueno A, Chrousos GP. Chronic insomnia and activity of the stress system: a preliminary study. J Psychosom Res. 1998 Jul; 45(1):21-31. PMID: 9720852.
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    129. Vgontzas AN, Bixler EO, Tan TL, Kantner D, Martin LF, Kales A. Obesity without sleep apnea is associated with daytime sleepiness. Arch Intern Med. 1998 Jun 22; 158(12):1333-7. PMID: 9645828.
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    130. Bixler EO, Vgontzas AN, Ten Have T, Tyson K, Kales A. Effects of age on sleep apnea in men: I. Prevalence and severity. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1998 Jan; 157(1):144-8. PMID: 9445292.
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    131. Nowell PD, Buysse DJ, Reynolds CF, Hauri PJ, Roth T, Stepanski EJ, Thorpy MJ, Bixler E, Kales A, Manfredi RL, Vgontzas AN, Stapf DM, Houck PR, Kupfer DJ. Clinical factors contributing to the differential diagnosis of primary insomnia and insomnia related to mental disorders. Am J Psychiatry. 1997 Oct; 154(10):1412-6. PMID: 9326824.
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    132. Vgontzas AN, Bixler EO, Papanicolaou DA, Kales A, Stratakis CA, Vela-Bueno A, Gold PW, Chrousos GP. Rapid eye movement sleep correlates with the overall activities of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic system in healthy humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997 Oct; 82(10):3278-80. PMID: 9329353.
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    133. ten Have TR, Bixler EO. Modelling population heterogeneity in sensitivity and specificity of a multi-stage screen for obstructive sleep apnoea. Stat Med. 1997 Sep 15; 16(17):1995-2008. PMID: 9304769.
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    134. Buysse DJ, Reynolds CF, Kupfer DJ, Thorpy MJ, Bixler E, Kales A, Manfredi R, Vgontzas A, Stepanski E, Roth T, Hauri P, Stapf D. Effects of diagnosis on treatment recommendations in chronic insomnia--a report from the APA/NIMH DSM-IV field trial. Sleep. 1997 Jul; 20(7):542-52. PMID: 9322270.
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    135. Vgontzas AN, Papanicolaou DA, Bixler EO, Kales A, Tyson K, Chrousos GP. Elevation of plasma cytokines in disorders of excessive daytime sleepiness: role of sleep disturbance and obesity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997 May; 82(5):1313-6. PMID: 9141509.
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    136. Kettl PA, Collins T, Sredy M, Bixler EO. Seasonal differences in suicide birth rate in Alaska Natives compared to other populations. Am Indian Alsk Native Ment Health Res. 1997; 8(1):1-10. PMID: 9458541.
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    137. Vgontzas AN, Bixler EO, Kales A, Centurione A, Rogan PK, Mascari M, Vela-Bueno A. Daytime sleepiness and REM abnormalities in Prader-Willi syndrome: evidence of generalized hypoarousal. Int J Neurosci. 1996 Nov; 87(3-4):127-39. PMID: 9003974.
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    138. Vgontzas AN, Kales A, Seip J, Mascari MJ, Bixler EO, Myers DC, Vela-Bueno AV, Rogan PK. Relationship of sleep abnormalities to patient genotypes in Prader-Willi syndrome. Am J Med Genet. 1996 Sep 20; 67(5):478-82. PMID: 8886165.
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    139. Vgontzas AN, Sollenberger SE, Kales A, Bixler EO, Vela-Bueno A. Narcolepsy-cataplexy and loss of sphincter control. Postgrad Med J. 1996 Aug; 72(850):493-4. PMID: 8796217; PMCID: PMC2398551.
    140. Kales A, Vgontzas AN, Bixler EO. A reassessment of triazolam. Int J Risk Saf Med. 1996; 9(1):7-27. PMID: 23512020.
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    141. Vgontzas AN, Kales A, Bixler EO. Benzodiazepine side effects: role of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Pharmacology. 1995 Oct; 51(4):205-23. PMID: 8577815.
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    142. Martin LF, Tan TL, Horn JR, Bixler EO, Kauffman GL, Becker DA, Hunter SM. Comparison of the costs associated with medical and surgical treatment of obesity. Surgery. 1995 Oct; 118(4):599-606; discussion 606-7. PMID: 7570311.
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    143. Vgontzas AN, Bixler EO, Kales A, Vela-Bueno A. Prader-Willi syndrome: effects of weight loss on sleep-disordered breathing, daytime sleepiness and REM sleep disturbance. Acta Paediatr. 1995 Jul; 84(7):813-4. PMID: 7549304.
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    144. Kales JP, Barone MA, Bixler EO, Miljkovic MM, Kales JD. Mental illness and substance use among sheltered homeless persons in lower-density population areas. Psychiatr Serv. 1995 Jun; 46(6):592-5. PMID: 7641001.
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    145. Vgontzas AN, Kales A, Bixler EO, Manfredi RL, Vela-Bueno A. Usefulness of polysomnographic studies in the differential diagnosis of insomnia. Int J Neurosci. 1995 May; 82(1-2):47-60. PMID: 7591515.
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    146. Martin LF, Tan TL, Holmes PA, Becker DA, Horn J, Bixler EO. Can morbidly obese patients safely lose weight preoperatively? Am J Surg. 1995 Feb; 169(2):245-53. PMID: 7840388.
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    147. Vgontzas AN, Friedman TC, Chrousos GP, Bixler EO, Vela-Bueno A, Kales A. Delta sleep-inducing peptide in normal humans and in patients with sleep apnea and narcolepsy. Peptides. 1995; 16(6):1153-6. PMID: 8532601.
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    148. Mayes SD, Crites DL, Bixler EO, Humphrey FJ, Mattison RE. Methylphenidate and ADHD: influence of age, IQ and neurodevelopmental status. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1994 Dec; 36(12):1099-107. PMID: 7525394.
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    149. Buysse DJ, Reynolds CF, Kupfer DJ, Thorpy MJ, Bixler E, Manfredi R, Kales A, Vgontzas A, Stepanski E, Roth T, et al. Clinical diagnoses in 216 insomnia patients using the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD), DSM-IV and ICD-10 categories: a report from the APA/NIMH DSM-IV Field Trial. Sleep. 1994 Oct; 17(7):630-7. PMID: 7846462.
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    150. Buysse DJ, Reynolds CF, Hauri PJ, Roth T, Stepanski EJ, Thorpy MJ, Bixler EO, Kales A, Manfredi RL, Vgontzas AN, et al. Diagnostic concordance for DSM-IV sleep disorders: a report from the APA/NIMH DSM-IV field trial. Am J Psychiatry. 1994 Sep; 151(9):1351-60. PMID: 8067492.
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    151. Vgontzas AN, Tan TL, Bixler EO, Martin LF, Shubert D, Kales A. Sleep apnea and sleep disruption in obese patients. Arch Intern Med. 1994 Aug 08; 154(15):1705-11. PMID: 8042887.
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    152. Vgontzas AN, Bixler EO, Kales A, Manfredi RL, Tyson K. Validity and clinical utility of sleep laboratory criteria for insomnia. Int J Neurosci. 1994 Jul; 77(1-2):11-21. PMID: 7989156.
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    153. Vgontzas AN, Kales A, Bixler EO, Myers DC. Temazepam 7.5 mg: effects on sleep in elderly insomniacs. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1994; 46(3):209-13. PMID: 8070501.
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    154. Mayes SD, Bixler EO. Reliability of global impressions for assessing methylphenidate effects in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Percept Mot Skills. 1993 Dec; 77(3 Pt 2):1215-8. PMID: 8170770.
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    155. Kales A, Bixler EO, Vgontzas AN. Triazolam. The evidence against is extensive and consistent. BMJ. 1993 Sep 04; 307(6904):626. PMID: 8401035; PMCID: PMC1678896.
    156. Kales A, Bixler EO, Vgontzas AN. Triazolam safety. Lancet. 1993 Jun 19; 341(8860):1602. PMID: 8099681.
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    157. Kales A, Bixler EO, Vgontzas AN. Triazolam. Weight of evidence supports increased risk. BMJ. 1993 May 29; 306(6890):1475. PMID: 8357399; PMCID: PMC1677857.
    158. Kales A, Bixler EO, Vgontzas AN. Adverse events after triazolam substitution. Lancet. 1993 Feb 27; 341(8844):567-8. PMID: 8094814.
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    159. Kettl P, Bixler EO. Alcohol and suicide in Alaska Natives. Am Indian Alsk Native Ment Health Res. 1993; 5(2):34-45. PMID: 8130312.
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    160. Vgontzas AN, Kales A, Bixler EO, Manfredi RL, Tyson KL. Effects of lovastatin and pravastatin on sleep efficiency and sleep stages. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1991 Dec; 50(6):730-7. PMID: 1752118.
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    161. Bixler EO, Kales A, Manfredi RL, Vgontzas AN. Triazolam and memory loss. Lancet. 1991 Nov 30; 338(8779):1391-2. PMID: 1682752.
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    162. Manfredi RL, Kales A, Vgontzas AN, Bixler EO, Isaac MA, Falcone CM. Buspirone: sedative or stimulant effect? Am J Psychiatry. 1991 Sep; 148(9):1213-7. PMID: 1883000.
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    163. Bixler EO, Kales A, Manfredi RL, Vgontzas AN, Tyson KL, Kales JD. Triazolam. Lancet. 1991 Jun 29; 337(8757):1612. PMID: 1675742.
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    164. Martin LF, Tan TL, Holmes PA, Becker DA, Horn J, Mann LD, Bixler EO. Preoperative insurance status influences postoperative complication rates for gastric bypass. Am J Surg. 1991 Jun; 161(6):625-34. PMID: 1830719.
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    165. Bixler EO, Kales A, Manfredi RL, Vgontzas AN, Tyson KL, Kales JD. Next-day memory impairment with triazolam use. Lancet. 1991 Apr 06; 337(8745):827-31. PMID: 1672921.
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    166. Kales A, Manfredi RL, Vgontzas AN, Bixler EO, Vela-Bueno A, Fee EC. Rebound insomnia after only brief and intermittent use of rapidly eliminated benzodiazepines. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1991 Apr; 49(4):468-76. PMID: 2015735.
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    167. Kettl PA, Bixler EO. Suicide in Alaska Natives, 1979-1984. Psychiatry. 1991 Feb; 54(1):55-63. PMID: 2023974.
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    168. Humphrey FJ, Mayes SD, Bixler EO, Good C. Variables associated with frequency of rumination in a boy with profound mental retardation. J Autism Dev Disord. 1989 Sep; 19(3):435-47. PMID: 2793788.
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    169. Stauffer JL, Buick MK, Bixler EO, Sharkey FE, Abt AB, Manders EK, Kales A, Cadieux RJ, Barry JD, Zwillich CW. Morphology of the uvula in obstructive sleep apnea. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1989 Sep; 140(3):724-8. PMID: 2782743.
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    170. Kales A, Soldatos CR, Bixler EO, Kales JD, Vela-Bueno A. Diazepam: effects on sleep and withdrawal phenomena. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1988 Oct; 8(5):340-6. PMID: 3183072.
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    171. Kales A, Bixler EO, Vela-Bueno A, Cadieux RJ, Manfredi RL, Bitzer S, Kantner T. Effects of nadolol on blood pressure, sleep efficiency, and sleep stages. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1988 Jun; 43(6):655-62. PMID: 3378387.
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    172. Bixler EO, Kales A, Vela-Bueno A, Niklaus DE, Shubert DD, Soldatos CR. Nocturnal sleep and blood pressure in essential hypertension. Int J Neurosci. 1988 May; 40(1-2):1-11. PMID: 3397244.
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    173. Cadieux RJ, Manders EK, Manfredi RL, Bixler EO, Kales A. Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty as a treatment of obstructive sleep apnea precipitated by uvular prolapse. Ann Plast Surg. 1987 Dec; 19(6):566-71. PMID: 3439775.
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    174. Bixler EO, Vela-Bueno A. Normal sleep: patterns and mechanisms. Semin Neurol. 1987 Sep; 7(3):227-35. PMID: 3332457.
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    175. Stauffer JL, Zwillich CW, Cadieux RJ, Bixler EO, Kales A, Varano LA, White DP. Pharyngeal size and resistance in obstructive sleep apnea. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1987 Sep; 136(3):623-7. PMID: 3631735.
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    176. Kales A, Bixler EO, Vela-Bueno A, Soldatos CR, Manfredi RL. Alprazolam: effects on sleep and withdrawal phenomena. J Clin Pharmacol. 1987 Jul; 27(7):508-15. PMID: 3655003.
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    177. Kales A, Bixler EO, Soldatos CR, Cadieux RJ, Manfredi R, Vela-Bueno A. Narcolepsy/cataplexy. IV: Diagnostic value of daytime nap recordings. Acta Neurol Scand. 1987 Apr; 75(4):223-30. PMID: 3591273.
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    178. Robinson RW, Zwillich CW, Bixler EO, Cadieux RJ, Kales A, White DP. Effects of oral narcotics on sleep-disordered breathing in healthy adults. Chest. 1987 Feb; 91(2):197-203. PMID: 2433098.
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    179. Bixler EO, Kales A, Brubaker BH, Kales JD. Adverse reactions to benzodiazepine hypnotics: spontaneous reporting system. Pharmacology. 1987; 35(5):286-300. PMID: 2892212.
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    180. Kales A, Bixler EO, Vela-Bueno A, Soldatos CR, Niklaus DE, Manfredi RL. Comparison of short and long half-life benzodiazepine hypnotics: triazolam and quazepam. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1986 Oct; 40(4):378-86. PMID: 3530586.
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    181. Handford HA, Mayes SD, Bixler EO, Mattison RE. Personality traits of hemophilic boys. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 1986 Aug; 7(4):224-9. PMID: 3745448.
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    182. Handford HA, Dickerson Mayes S, Bagnato SJ, Bixler EO. Relationships between variations in parents' attitudes and personality traits of hemophilic boys. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 1986 Jul; 56(3):424-434. PMID: 3740225.
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    183. Bixler EO, Kales A, Vela-Bueno A, Drozdiak RA, Jacoby JA, Manfredi RL. Narcolepsy/cataplexy. III: Nocturnal sleep and wakefulness patterns. Int J Neurosci. 1986 Jun; 29(3-4):305-16. PMID: 3733331.
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    184. Kales A, Bixler EO, Soldatos CR, Vela-Bueno A, Jacoby JA, Kales JD. Quazepam and temazepam: effects of short- and intermediate-term use and withdrawal. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1986 Mar; 39(3):345-52. PMID: 2868823.
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    185. Bixler EO, Robertson JA, Soldatos CR. Sleep laboratory assessment of normal sleep and sleep disorders. Psychiatr Med. 1986; 4(2):105-18. PMID: 3324177.
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    186. Kales A, Bixler EO, Soldatos CR, Jacoby JA, Kales JD. Lorazepam: effects on sleep and withdrawal phenomena. Pharmacology. 1986; 32(3):121-30. PMID: 3960963.
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    187. White DP, Cadieux RJ, Lombard RM, Bixler EO, Kales A, Zwillich CW. The effects of nasal anesthesia on breathing during sleep. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1985 Nov; 132(5):972-5. PMID: 4062052.
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    188. Tan TL, Bixler EO, Kales A, Cadieux RJ, Goodman AL. Early morning insomnia, daytime anxiety, and organic mental disorder associated with triazolam. J Fam Pract. 1985 Jun; 20(6):592-4. PMID: 2860198.
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    189. Bixler EO, Kales A, Cadieux RJ, Vela-Bueno A, Jacoby JA, Soldatos CR. Sleep apneic activity in older healthy subjects. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1985 May; 58(5):1597-601. PMID: 3997724.
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    190. Bixler EO, Kales JD, Kales A, Jacoby JA, Soldatos CR. Rebound insomnia and elimination half-life: assessment of individual subject response. J Clin Pharmacol. 1985 Mar; 25(2):115-24. PMID: 2859304.
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    191. Soldatos CR, Kales A, Bixler EO, Vela-Bueno A. Behavioral side effects of benzodiazepine hypnotics. Clin Neuropharmacol. 1985; 8 Suppl 1:S112-7. PMID: 3915704.
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    192. Kales A, Cadieux RJ, Bixler EO, Soldatos CR, Vela-Bueno A, Misoul CA, Locke TW. Severe obstructive sleep apnea--I: Onset, clinical course, and characteristics. J Chronic Dis. 1985; 38(5):419-25. PMID: 3998056.
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    193. Kales A, Bixler EO, Cadieux RJ, Schneck DW, Shaw LC, Locke TW, Vela-Bueno A, Soldatos CR. Sleep apnoea in a hypertensive population. Lancet. 1984 Nov 03; 2(8410):1005-8. PMID: 6149395.
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    194. Kales JD, Kales A, Bixler EO, Soldatos CR, Cadieux RJ, Kashurba GJ, Vela-Bueno A. Biopsychobehavioral correlates of insomnia, V: Clinical characteristics and behavioral correlates. Am J Psychiatry. 1984 Nov; 141(11):1371-6. PMID: 6496780.
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    195. Kales A, Bixler EO, Kales JD. Commentary--avoiding problems in the sleep laboratory. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1984 Aug; 4(4):227-9. PMID: 6470199.
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    196. Tan TL, Kales JD, Kales A, Soldatos CR, Bixler EO. Biopsychobehavioral correlates of insomnia. IV: Diagnosis based on DSM-III. Am J Psychiatry. 1984 Mar; 141(3):357-62. PMID: 6703098.
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    197. Kales A, Bixler EO, Vela-Bueno A, Cadieux RJ, Soldatos CR, Kales JD. Biopsychobehavioral correlates of insomnia, III: Polygraphic findings of sleep difficulty and their relationship to psychopathology. Int J Neurosci. 1984 Mar; 23(1):43-55. PMID: 6724816.
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    198. Bixler EO, Kales A, Jacoby JA, Soldatos CR, Vela-Bueno A. Nocturnal sleep and wakefulness: effects of age and sex in normal sleepers. Int J Neurosci. 1984 Mar; 23(1):33-42. PMID: 6724815.
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    199. Kales A, Caldwell AB, Soldatos CR, Bixler EO, Kales JD. Biopsychobehavioral correlates of insomnia. II. Pattern specificity and consistency with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Psychosom Med. 1983 Aug; 45(4):341-56. PMID: 6622623.
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    200. Berlin RM, Ronthal M, Bixler EO, Kales JD. Psychiatric symptomatology in an outpatient neurology clinic. J Clin Psychiatry. 1983 Jun; 44(6):204-6. PMID: 6853458.
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    201. Kales A, Soldatos CR, Bixler EO, Kales JD. Early morning insomnia with rapidly eliminated benzodiazepines. Science. 1983 Apr 01; 220(4592):95-7. PMID: 6131538.
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    202. Kales A, Soldatos CR, Bixler EO, Goff PJ, Vela-Bueno A. Midazolam: dose-response studies of effectiveness and rebound insomnia. Pharmacology. 1983; 26(3):138-49. PMID: 6132414.
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    203. Kales A, Soldatos CR, Bixler EO, Kales JD. Rebound insomnia and rebound anxiety: a review. Pharmacology. 1983; 26(3):121-37. PMID: 6132413.
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    204. Kales A, Bixler EO, Soldatos CR, Vela-Bueno A, Jacoby J, Kales JD. Quazepam and flurazepam: long-term use and extended withdrawal. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1982 Dec; 32(6):781-8. PMID: 7140142.
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    205. Kales A, Bixler EO, Soldatos CR, Mitsky DJ, Kales JD. Dose-response studies of lormetazepam: efficacy, side effects, and rebound insomnia. J Clin Pharmacol. 1982 Nov-Dec; 22(11-12):520-30. PMID: 6131080.
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    206. Cadieux RJ, Kales A, Santen RJ, Bixler EO, Gordon R. Endoscopic findings in sleep apnea associated with acromegaly. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1982 Jul; 55(1):18-22. PMID: 7076804.
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    207. Kales A, Bixler EO, Soldatos CR, Vela-Bueno A, Caldwell AB, Cadieux RJ. Biopsychobehavioral correlates of insomnia, part 1: Role of sleep apnea and nocturnal myoclonus. Psychosomatics. 1982 Jun; 23(6):589-600. PMID: 7122793.
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    208. Bixler EO, Kales A, Vela-Bueno A, Jacoby JA, Scarone S, Soldatos CR. Nocturnal myoclonus and nocturnal myoclonic activity in the normal population. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol. 1982 Apr; 36(1):129-40. PMID: 7079579.
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    209. Bixler EO, Kales A, Soldatos CR, Vela-Bueno A, Jacoby JA, Scarone S. Sleep apneic activity in a normal population. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol. 1982 Apr; 36(1):141-52. PMID: 7079580.
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    210. Kales A, Soldatos CR, Bixler EO, Caldwell A, Cadieux RJ, Verrechio JM, Kales JD. Narcolepsy-cataplexy. II. Psychosocial consequences and associated psychopathology. Arch Neurol. 1982 Mar; 39(3):169-71. PMID: 7065935.
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    211. Kales A, Cadieux RJ, Soldatos CR, Bixler EO, Schweitzer PK, Prey WT, Vela-Bueno A. Narcolepsy-cataplexy. I. Clinical and electrophysiologic characteristics. Arch Neurol. 1982 Mar; 39(3):164-8. PMID: 7065934.
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    212. Scharf MB, Kales A, Bixler EO, Jacoby JA, Schweitzer PK. Lorazepam-efficacy, side effects, and rebound phenomena. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1982 Feb; 31(2):175-9. PMID: 6120058.
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    213. Healey ES, Kales A, Monroe LJ, Bixler EO, Chamberlin K, Soldatos CR. Onset of insomnia: role of life-stress events. Psychosom Med. 1981 Oct; 43(5):439-51. PMID: 7313035.
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    214. Kales A, Scharf MB, Bixler EO, Schweitzer PK, Jacoby JA, Soldatos CR. Dose-response studies of quazepam. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1981 Aug; 30(2):194-200. PMID: 6113910.
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    215. Handford AH, Charney D, Ackerman L, Eyster ME, Bixler EO. Effect of psychiatric intervention on use of antihemophilic factor concentrate. Am J Psychiatry. 1980 Oct; 137(10):1254-6. PMID: 6774621.
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    216. Kales A, Soldatos CR, Bixler EO, Ladda RL, Charney DS, Weber G, Schweitzer PK. Hereditary factors in sleepwalking and night terrors. Br J Psychiatry. 1980 Aug; 137:111-8. PMID: 7426840.
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    217. Soldatos CR, Vela-Bueno A, Bixler EO, Schweitzer PK, Kales A. Sleepwalking and night terrors in adulthood clinical EEG findings. Clin Electroencephalogr. 1980 Jul; 11(3):136-9. PMID: 7449156.
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    218. Kales A, Scharf MB, Soldatos CR, Bixler EO, Bianchi SB, Schweitzer PK. Quazepam, a new benzodiazepine hypnotic: intermediate-term sleep laboratory evaluation. J Clin Pharmacol. 1980 Apr; 20(4 Pt 1):184-92. PMID: 6103903.
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    219. Kales JD, Kales A, Bixler EO, Soldatos CR. Sleep disorders: what the primary care physician needs to know. Postgrad Med. 1980 Mar; 67(3):213-7, 220. PMID: 7355136.
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    220. Soldatos CR, Kales JD, Scharf MB, Bixler EO, Kales A. Cigarette smoking associated with sleep difficulty. Science. 1980 Feb 01; 207(4430):551-3. PMID: 7352268.
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    221. Kales A, Soldatos CR, Cadieux R, Bixler EO, Tan TL, Scharf MB. Propranolol in the treatment of narcolepsy. Ann Intern Med. 1979 Nov; 91(5):741-3. PMID: 496110.
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    222. Bixler EO, Scharf MB, Soldatos CR, Mitsky DJ, Kales A. Effects of hypnotic drugs on memory. Life Sci. 1979 Oct 15; 25(16):1379-88. PMID: 522606.
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    223. Bixler EO, Kales A, Soldatos CR, Kales JD, Healey S. Prevalence of sleep disorders in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. Am J Psychiatry. 1979 Oct; 136(10):1257-62. PMID: 314756.
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    224. Kales A, Scharf MB, Soldatos CR, Bixler EO. Clinical evaluation of hypnotic drugs: contributions from sleep laboratory studies. J Clin Pharmacol. 1979 Jul; 19(7):329-36. PMID: 383750.
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    225. Kales JD, Kales A, Bixler EO, Soldatos CR. Resource for managing sleep disorders. JAMA. 1979 Jun 01; 241(22):2413-6. PMID: 86618.
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    226. Scharf MB, Bixler EO, Kales A, Soldatos CR. Long-term sleep laboratory evaluation of flunitrazepam. Pharmacology. 1979; 19(4):173-81. PMID: 42931.
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    227. Bixler EO, Kales A, Soldatos CR, Scharf MB, Kales JD. Effectiveness of temazepam with short-intermediate-, and long-term use: sleep laboratory evaluation. J Clin Pharmacol. 1978 Feb-Mar; 18(2-3):110-8. PMID: 342551.
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    228. Soldatos CR, Kales A, Bixler EO, Scharf MB, Kales JD. Hypnotic effectiveness of sodium salicylamide with short-term use: sleep laboratory studies. Pharmacology. 1978; 16(4):193-8. PMID: 345289.
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    229. Bixler EO, Kales A, Soldatos CR, Kales JD. Flunitrazepam, an investigational hypnotic drug: sleep laboratory evaluations. J Clin Pharmacol. 1977 Oct; 17(10 Pt 1):569-78. PMID: 21199.
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    230. Kales A, Bixler EO, Kales JD, Scharf MB. Comparative effectiveness of nine hypnotic drugs: sleep laboratory studies. J Clin Pharmacol. 1977 Apr; 17(4):207-13. PMID: 321488.
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    231. Kales A, Hauri P, Bixler EO, Silberfarb P. Effectiveness of intermediate-term use of secobarbital. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1976 Nov; 20(5):541-5. PMID: 185000.
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    232. Kales A, Kales JD, Bixler EO, Scharf MB, Russek E. Hypnotic efficacy of triazolam: sleep laboratory evaluation of intermediate-term effectiveness. J Clin Pharmacol. 1976 Aug-Sep; 16(8-9):399-406. PMID: 184118.
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    233. Bixler EO, Kales A, Santen R, Vela-Bueno A, Soldatos CR, Kotas DM. Effects of flurazepam (Dalmane) on anterior pituitary secretion. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol. 1976 Jul; 14(3):421-9. PMID: 8820.
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    234. Kales A, Bixler EO, Scharf M, Kales JD. Sleep laboratory studies of flurazepam: a model for evaluating hypnotic drugs. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1976 May; 19(5 Pt 1):576-83. PMID: 6180.
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    235. Kales A, Kales JD, Bixler EO, Scharf MB. Effectiveness of hypnotic drugs with prolonged use: flurazepam and pentobarbital. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1975 Sep; 18(3):356-63. PMID: 240529.
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    236. Scharf MB, Kales A, Bixler EO. Readaptation to the sleep laboratory in insomniac subjects. Psychophysiology. 1975 Jul; 12(4):412-5. PMID: 169540.
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    237. Kales A, Bixler EO, Tan TL, Scharf MB, Kales JD. Chronic hypnotic-drug use. Ineffectiveness, drug-withdrawal insomnia, and dependence. JAMA. 1974 Feb 04; 227(5):513-7. PMID: 4358882.
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    238. Bixler EO, Kales A, Tan TL, Kales JD. The effects of hypnotic drugs on performance. Curr Ther Res Clin Exp. 1973 Jan; 15(1):13-24. PMID: 4631377.
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    239. Kales J, Kales A, Bixler EO, Slye ES. Effects of placebo and flurazepam on sleep patterns in insomniac subjects. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1971 Jul-Aug; 12(4):691-7. PMID: 4327923.
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    240. Reite M, Stephens L, Bixler EO, Koestler AG, Rhodes JM. Rapid decompression in a chimpanzee with implanted electrodes: a case report. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1967 Jul; 23(1):91. PMID: 4165607.
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