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Thomas Lloyd

TitleProfessor
InstitutionCollege of Medicine
DepartmentPublic Health Sciences
Address500 University Drive Hershey PA 17033
Mailbox: A210
Phone7175316258
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    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse overview
    PREFERRED TITLE/ROLE:
    Professor of Public Health Sciences, Pharmacology, and Obstetrics and Gynecology

    SECONDARY APPOINTMENT(S)/ INSTITUTE(S)/ CENTER(S):
    Pharmacology, Obstetrics and Gynecology

    GRADUATE PROGRAM AFFILIATIONS:
    Public Health Sciences, Pharmacology, Nutrition

    EDUCATION:
    Ph.D., Harvard University, 1970

    Postdoctoral Training, The National Institute of Mental Health, 1970-1972



    NARRATIVE:

    I was recruited to the Penn State College of Medicine from the NIH in 1975. In addition to being a professor in the Department of Public Health Sciences, I hold joint appointments in the departments of Pharmacology, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nutrition and Kinesiology and have had external research support since 1976, including being an American Heart Established Investigator. Training medical students and physicians to conduct clinical research has been a central and continuing aspect of my career. I was the architect of the Penn State Medical Student Research program and its director for 28 years. I have been the research project mentor for more than 50 medical students, physician students and graduate students and was the PI and director of the Penn State Clinical Research Training Program (K30 Program), 1998 – 2011. As shown below there have been four phases to my research career. My current research interests are on the use of multi-media technologies to improve patient self-care and the development of active learning programs for clinicians and scientists who wish to improve their presentation and communication skills.

    Contributions to Science

    1. Regulation of Catecholamine Biosynthesis. Tyrosine hydroxylase had been appreciated as the rate limiting step in the biosynthesis of catecholamine neurotransmitters since the 1960’s but little was known about its regulation. My first studies defined that a pteridine cofactor, tetrahydrobiopterin, was its principal endogenous cofactor and that it regulated the enzyme. A series of subsequent studies defined the roles played by its substrate, by an endogenous membrane phospholipid, phosphatidylinositol, and by catechol estrogens in the regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase.

    a. Lloyd T, Weiner N. Isolation and characterization of a tyrosine hydroxylase cofactor from bovine adrenal medulla. Mol Pharmacol. 1971 Nov;7(6):569-80. PubMed PMID: 4402118.

    b. Lloyd T, Breakefield XO. Tyrosine-dependent increase of tyrosine hydroxylase in neuroblastoma cells. Nature. 1974 Dec 20;252(5485):719-20. PubMed PMID: 4155049.

    c. Lloyd T, Weisz J. Direct inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase activity by catechol estrogens. J Biol Chem. 1978 Jul 25;253(14):4841-3. PubMed PMID: 27508.

    d. Lloyd T. The effects of phosphatidylinositol on tyrosine hydroxylase. Stimulation and inactivation. J Biol Chem. 1979 Aug 10;254(15):7247-54. PubMed PMID: 37250.


    2. Role of Sex Steroids in the Maintenance of the Female Skeleton. Work with enzymatic regulation by sex steroids provided a foundation upon which I brought together a team of obstetricians, orthopedic surgeons, and sports medicine experts to address questions related to how variations in life-style could alter circulating levels of female sex steroids, and to what extent such changes in sex steroid levels could influence bone accretion and maintenance, particularly in the adolescent female skeleton.

    a. Lloyd T, Triantafyllou SJ, Baker ER, Houts PS, Whiteside JA, Kalenak A, Stumpf PG. Women athletes with menstrual irregularity have increased musculoskeletal injuries. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1986 Aug;18(4):374-9. PubMed PMID: 3747798.

    b. Lloyd T, Myers C, Buchanan JR, Demers LM. Collegiate women athletes with irregular menses during adolescence have decreased bone density. Obstet Gynecol. 1988 Oct;72(4):639-42. PubMed PMID: 3419741.

    c. Lloyd T, Buchanan JR, Ursino GR, Myers C, Woodward G, Halbert DR. Long-term oral contraceptive use does not affect trabecular bone density. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1989 Feb;160(2):402-4. PubMed PMID: 2916626.

    d. Lloyd T, Schaeffer JM, Walker MA, Demers LM. Urinary hormonal concentrations and spinal bone densities of premenopausal vegetarian and nonvegetarian women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991 Dec;54(6):1005-10. PubMed PMID: 1957814.


    3. Delineation of the Roles Played by Maturation of the Hormonal Axis, Calcium Intake and Physical Activity in the Development of the Female Skeleton. The previous set of studies pointed to our need to understand factors that influence development of the female skeleton during adolescence, particularly after the onset of menarche. Prior to 1988 instrumentation to quantify bone parameters of the adolescent skeleton, with an acceptable amount of radiation exposure, did not exist. The first commercial dual energy x-ray absorptiometers (DXA) came out in 1988 and we had the good fortune to have already assembled a multi-disciplinary team to conduct a series of longitudinal studies which established physical activity as the most important modifiable determinant of bone acquisition during adolescence. Further, as we followed the 100 participants in the Penn State Young Women’s Health Study from age 12 to 23 our longitudinal data sets provided insight into the relationships among nutrient intake, physical activity and endocrine maturation to bone gain and bone strength in the developing female skeleton.

    a. Lloyd T, Chinchilli VM, Johnson-Rollings N, Kieselhorst K, Eggli DF, Marcus R. Adult female hip bone density reflects teenage sports-exercise patterns but not teenage calcium intake. Pediatrics. 2000 Jul;106(1 Pt 1):40-4. PubMed PMID: 10878147.

    b. Lloyd T, Taylor DS, Lin HM, Matthews AE, Eggli DF, Legro RS. Oral contraceptive use by teenage women does not affect peak bone mass: a longitudinal study. Fertil Steril. 2000 Oct;74(4):734-8. PubMed PMID: 11020515.

    c. Lloyd T, Beck TJ, Lin HM, Tulchinsky M, Eggli DF, Oreskovic TL, Cavanagh PR, Seeman E. Modifiable determinants of bone status in young women. Bone. 2002 Feb;30(2):416-21. PubMed PMID: 11856651.

    d. Petit MA, Beck TJ, Hughes JM, Lin HM, Bentley C, Lloyd T. Proximal femur mechanical adaptation to weight gain in late adolescence: a six-year longitudinal study. J Bone Miner Res. 2008 Feb;23(2):180-8. PubMed PMID: 17937533; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2665698.


    4. Assessment of Health Knowledge and Use of Multi-media to Improve Health. The conduct of previous studies with healthy volunteers, both adolescents and adults, reinforced the importance of communication in health care and led to a series of studies that have both explored the use of multi-media for health care education and explored patient-caregiver-family communication dynamics in delivery of health care. My experience in these areas will be useful in my roles in the education areas of a Penn State CTSA.

    a. Terndrup TE, Ali S, Hulse S, Shaffer M, Lloyd T. Multimedia education increases elder knowledge of emergency department care. West J Emerg Med. 2013 Mar;14(2):132-6. PubMed PMID: 23599848; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3628460.

    b. Lloyd T, Shaffer ML, Christy S, Widome MD, Repke J, Weitekamp MR, Eslinger PJ, Bargainnier SS, Paul IM. Health knowledge among the millennial generation. J Public Health Res. 2013 Apr 28;2(1):38-41. PubMed PMID: 25170479; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4140324.

    c. Schubart JR, Wojnar M, Dillard JP, Meczkowski E, Kanaskie ML, Blackall GF, Sperry N, Lloyd T. ICU family communication and health care professionals: A qualitative analysis of perspectives. Intensive Crit Care Nurs. 2015 May 20;PubMed PMID: 26002515.




    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Lloyd T, Buck H, Foy A, Black S, Pinter A, Pogash R, Eismann B, Balaban E, Chan J, Kunselman A, Smyth J, Boehmer J. The Penn State Heart Assistant: A pilot study of a web-based intervention to improve self-care of heart failure patients. Health Informatics J. 2017 May 01; 1460458217704247. PMID: 28504048.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Schubart JR, Wojnar M, Dillard JP, Meczkowski E, Kanaskie ML, Blackall GF, Sperry N, Lloyd T. ICU family communication and health care professionals: A qualitative analysis of perspectives. Intensive Crit Care Nurs. 2015 Oct; 31(5):315-21. PMID: 26002515.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Lloyd T, Shaffer ML, Stetter CM, Widome MD, Repke J, Weitekamp MR, Eslinger PJ, Bargainnier SS, Paul IM, . Health Knowledge Among the Millennial Generation. J. Public Health Research DOI:10.4081/jphr.2013.e8. 2013.
    4. Terndrup TE, Ali S, Hulse S, Shaffer M, LloydT, . Multimedia Education Increases Elder Knowledge of ED Encounters. . Western Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2013.
    5. Lloyd T, Phillips BR, Aber RC. Factors that influence doctors' participation in clinical research. Med Educ. 2004 Aug; 38(8):848-51. PMID: 15271045.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Lloyd T, Petit MA, Lin HM, Beck TJ. Lifestyle factors and the development of bone mass and bone strength in young women. J Pediatr. 2004 Jun; 144(6):776-82. PMID: 15192626.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Lloyd T, Phillips BR, Aber RC. . Factors that influence physicians’ participation in clinical research: findings from the Penn State Study. Med Educa. 2004; 38:848-851.
    8. Lloyd T, Petit MA, Lin H-M, Beck TJ. . Lifestyle factors and the development of bone mass and bone strength in young women. J Pediatrics. 2004; 144:776-782.
    9. Lloyd T, Lin HM, Matthews AE, Bentley CM, Legro RS. Oral contraceptive use by teenage women does not affect body composition. Obstet Gynecol. 2002 Aug; 100(2):235-9. PMID: 12151143.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Lloyd T, Lin H-M, Eggli DF, Dodson WC, Demers LM, Legro RS. . Adolescent Caucasian mothers have reduced adult hipbone density. Fertil Steril. 2002; 77:136-140.
    11. Lloyd T, Lin H-M, Mathews AE, Bentley CM, Legro RS. . Oral contraceptive use by teenage women does not affect body composition. Obstet Gynecol. 2002; 100:235-239.
    12. Lloyd T, Lin HM, Eggli DF, Dodson WC, Demers LM, Legro RS. Adolescent Caucasian mothers have reduced adult hip bone density. Fertil Steril. 2002 Jan; 77(1):136-40. PMID: 11779603.
      View in: PubMed
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