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Scot Kimball

TitleProfessor
InstitutionCollege of Medicine
DepartmentCellular and Molecular Physiology
Address500 University Drive Hershey PA 17033
Mailbox: H166
Phone7175318970
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    Collapse Overview 
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    PREFERRED TITLE/ROLE:

    Professor of Cellular and Molecular Physiology

    SECONDARY APPOINTMENT(S)/ INSTITUTE(S)/ CENTER(S):

    The Huck Institutes of the Life Sciences

    GRADUATE PROGRAM AFFILIATIONS:

    Physiology, Cell and Molecular Biology

    EDUCATION:

    Ph.D., University of Vermont College of Medicine, 1983
    Postdoctoral Training, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, 1982-1985

    NARRATIVE:

    The overall goal of the research program is to understand the regulation of the initiation phase of protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells. Of the many steps in initiation, only two have been shown to be subject to regulation in vivo. These steps are the binding of initiator methionyl-tRNAi to the 40S ribosomal subunit and the binding of mRNA to the 43S preinitiation complex. The former step is mediated by a protein termed eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)-2 and is regulated by changes in the activity of a guanine nucleotide exchange protein, eIF2B, that catalyzes GDP exchange on eIF2. The binding of mRNA to the 43S preinitiation complex involves the interaction among a group of proteins collectively referred to as eIF4F and the binding of the eIF4F complex to the 5'-end of mRNA.

    Our previous studies have shown that in rat liver and skeletal muscle, the initiation of protein synthesis is responsive to a variety of stimuli including insulin, essential amino acids, and calcium-mobilizing hormones. In each of these cases, initiation is regulated through changes in the interaction of specific initiation factors with each other and/or with various regulatory proteins. The binding of the initiation factors to each other and to the regulatory proteins is controlled through changes in phosphorylation state. For example, eIF4E is an mRNA cap binding protein important in controlling not only the overall rate of protein synthesis, but also in selecting which mRNAs will be translated into protein. The ability of eIF4E to bind to the mRNA cap structure is regulated by its interaction with a second initiation factor, eIF4G, and the translational regulator, 4E-BP1. In skeletal muscle of diabetic rats, the amount of eIF4E present in the active eIF4F complex is decreased relative to controls whereas the amount in the inactive 4E-BP1·eIF4E complex is increased. The binding of eIF4E to these other proteins is correlated with changes in phosphorylation of each of the proteins. Current efforts are directed at delineating the mechanism of interaction of eIF4E with 4E-BP1 and eIF4G as well as the interaction between eIF2 and eIF2B using biochemical and molecular biological approaches. In addition, the effect of phosphorylation on the activity and interaction of the proteins is being investigated. Finally, identification and characterization of the kinases and phosphatases involved in mediating the changes in phosphorylation state is in progress.


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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Guan BJ, van Hoef V, Jobava R, Elroy-Stein O, Valasek LS, Cargnello M, Gao XH, Krokowski D, Merrick WC, Kimball SR, Komar AA, Koromilas AE, Wynshaw-Boris A, Topisirovic I, Larsson O, Hatzoglou M. A Unique ISR Program Determines Cellular Responses to Chronic Stress. Mol Cell. 2017 Dec 07; 68(5):885-900.e6. PMID: 29220654.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Kimball SR. Leucine-Induced Upregulation of Terminal Oligopyrimidine mRNA Translation in Skeletal Muscle: Just the Tip of the Iceberg? J Nutr. 2017 09; 147(9):1603-1604. PMID: 28768833.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Black AJ, Ravi S, Jefferson LS, Kimball SR, Schilder RJ. Dietary Fat Quantity and Type Induce Transcriptome-Wide Effects on Alternative Splicing of Pre-mRNA in Rat Skeletal Muscle. J Nutr. 2017 09; 147(9):1648-1657. PMID: 28768832.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Pettit AP, Jonsson WO, Bargoud AR, Mirek ET, Peelor FF, Wang Y, Gettys TW, Kimball SR, Miller BF, Hamilton KL, Wek RC, Anthony TG. Dietary Methionine Restriction Regulates Liver Protein Synthesis and Gene Expression Independently of Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2 Phosphorylation in Mice. J Nutr. 2017 06; 147(6):1031-1040. PMID: 28446632.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Miller WP, Ravi S, Martin TD, Kimball SR, Dennis MD. Activation of the Stress Response Kinase JNK (c-Jun N-terminal Kinase) Attenuates Insulin Action in Retina through a p70S6K1-dependent Mechanism. J Biol Chem. 2017 02 03; 292(5):1591-1602. PMID: 27965359.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Black AJ, Gordon BS, Dennis MD, Jefferson LS, Kimball SR. Regulation of protein and mRNA expression of the mTORC1 repressor REDD1 in response to leucine and serum. Biochem Biophys Rep. 2016 Dec; 8:296-301. PMID: 28367506.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Gordon BS, Liu C, Steiner JL, Nader GA, Jefferson LS, Kimball SR. Loss of REDD1 augments the rate of the overload-induced increase in muscle mass. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2016 09 01; 311(3):R545-57. PMID: 27465734.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Gordon BS, Steiner JL, Williamson DL, Lang CH, Kimball SR. Emerging role for regulated in development and DNA damage 1 (REDD1) in the regulation of skeletal muscle metabolism. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Jul 01; 311(1):E157-74. PMID: 27189933; PMCID: PMC4967146 [Available on 07/01/17].
    9. Kimball SR, Gordon BS, Moyer JE, Dennis MD, Jefferson LS. Leucine induced dephosphorylation of Sestrin2 promotes mTORC1 activation. Cell Signal. 2016 08; 28(8):896-906. PMID: 27010498; PMCID: PMC4899281 [Available on 08/01/17].
    10. Miller WP, Mihailescu ML, Yang C, Barber AJ, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS, Dennis MD. The Translational Repressor 4E-BP1 Contributes to Diabetes-Induced Visual Dysfunction. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2016 Mar; 57(3):1327-37. PMID: 26998719; PMCID: PMC4811182.
    11. Grainger DL, Kutzler L, Rannels SL, Kimball SR. Validation of a commercially available anti-REDD1 antibody using RNA interference and REDD1-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts. F1000Res. 2016; 5:250. PMID: 27335637; PMCID: PMC4893971.
    12. Boutry C, El-Kadi SW, Suryawan A, Steinhoff-Wagner J, Stoll B, Orellana RA, Nguyen HV, Kimball SR, Fiorotto ML, Davis TA. Pulsatile delivery of a leucine supplement during long-term continuous enteral feeding enhances lean growth in term neonatal pigs. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Apr 15; 310(8):E699-E713. PMID: 26884386.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Steiner JL, Crowell KT, Kimball SR, Lang CH. Disruption of REDD1 gene ameliorates sepsis-induced decrease in mTORC1 signaling but has divergent effects on proteolytic signaling in skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Dec 15; 309(12):E981-94. PMID: 26487002; PMCID: PMC4816198 [Available on 12/15/16].
    14. Ravi S, Schilder RJ, Berg AS, Kimball SR. Effects of age and hindlimb immobilization and remobilization on fast troponin T precursor mRNA alternative splicing in rat gastrocnemius muscle. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2016 Feb; 41(2):142-9. PMID: 26799695; PMCID: PMC4876695.
    15. Kimball SR, Ravi S, Gordon BS, Dennis MD, Jefferson LS. Amino Acid-Induced Activation of mTORC1 in Rat Liver Is Attenuated by Short-Term Consumption of a High-Fat Diet. J Nutr. 2015 Nov; 145(11):2496-502. PMID: 26400964.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Steiner JL, Kimball SR, Lang CH. Acute Alcohol-Induced Decrease in Muscle Protein Synthesis in Female Mice Is REDD-1 and mTOR-Independent. Alcohol Alcohol. 2016 May; 51(3):242-50. PMID: 26394774; PMCID: PMC4900151 [Available on 05/01/17].
    17. Lynch CJ, Kimball SR, Xu Y, Salzberg AC, Kawasawa YI. Global deletion of BCATm increases expression of skeletal muscle genes associated with protein turnover. Physiol Genomics. 2015 Nov; 47(11):569-80. PMID: 26351290; PMCID: PMC4629004 [Available on 11/01/16].
    18. So JS, Cho S, Min SH, Kimball SR, Lee AH. IRE1a-Dependent Decay of CReP/Ppp1r15b mRNA Increases Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2a Phosphorylation and Suppresses Protein Synthesis. Mol Cell Biol. 2015 Aug; 35(16):2761-70. PMID: 26031337; PMCID: PMC4508316.
    19. Ravi S, Schilder RJ, Kimball SR. Role of precursor mRNA splicing in nutrient-induced alterations in gene expression and metabolism. J Nutr. 2015 May; 145(5):841-6. PMID: 25761502; PMCID: PMC4408736.
    20. Gordon BS, Williamson DL, Lang CH, Jefferson LS, Kimball SR. Nutrient-induced stimulation of protein synthesis in mouse skeletal muscle is limited by the mTORC1 repressor REDD1. J Nutr. 2015 Apr; 145(4):708-13. PMID: 25716553; PMCID: PMC4381770.
    21. Wang L, Liu X, Nie J, Zhang J, Kimball SR, Zhang H, Zhang WJ, Jefferson LS, Cheng Z, Ji Q, Shi Y. ALCAT1 controls mitochondrial etiology of fatty liver diseases, linking defective mitophagy to steatosis. Hepatology. 2015 Feb; 61(2):486-96. PMID: 25203315; PMCID: PMC4303512.
    22. Dennis MD, Kimball SR, Fort PE, Jefferson LS. Regulated in development and DNA damage 1 is necessary for hyperglycemia-induced vascular endothelial growth factor expression in the retina of diabetic rodents. J Biol Chem. 2015 Feb 06; 290(6):3865-74. PMID: 25548280; PMCID: PMC4319049.
    23. Kelleher AR, Pereira SL, Jefferson LS, Kimball SR. REDD2 expression in rat skeletal muscle correlates with nutrient-induced activation of mTORC1: responses to aging, immobilization, and remobilization. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Jan 15; 308(2):E122-9. PMID: 25406262; PMCID: PMC4297780.
    24. Gordon BS, Steiner JL, Lang CH, Jefferson LS, Kimball SR. Reduced REDD1 expression contributes to activation of mTORC1 following electrically induced muscle contraction. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Oct 15; 307(8):E703-11. PMID: 25159324; PMCID: PMC4200302.
    25. Dennis MD, Coleman CS, Berg A, Jefferson LS, Kimball SR. REDD1 enhances protein phosphatase 2A-mediated dephosphorylation of Akt to repress mTORC1 signaling. Sci Signal. 2014 Jul 22; 7(335):ra68. PMID: 25056877; PMCID: PMC4145530.
    26. Steiner JL, Pruznak AM, Deiter G, Navaratnarajah M, Kutzler L, Kimball SR, Lang CH. Disruption of genes encoding eIF4E binding proteins-1 and -2 does not alter basal or sepsis-induced changes in skeletal muscle protein synthesis in male or female mice. PLoS One. 2014; 9(6):e99582. PMID: 24945486; PMCID: PMC4063727.
    27. Williamson DL, Li Z, Tuder RM, Feinstein E, Kimball SR, Dungan CM. Altered nutrient response of mTORC1 as a result of changes in REDD1 expression: effect of obesity vs. REDD1 deficiency. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2014 Aug 01; 117(3):246-56. PMID: 24876363; PMCID: PMC4122690.
    28. Martin TD, Dennis MD, Gordon BS, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. mTORC1 and JNK coordinate phosphorylation of the p70S6K1 autoinhibitory domain in skeletal muscle following functional overloading. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Jun 15; 306(12):E1397-405. PMID: 24801387; PMCID: PMC4059989.
    29. Guan BJ, Krokowski D, Majumder M, Schmotzer CL, Kimball SR, Merrick WC, Koromilas AE, Hatzoglou M. Translational control during endoplasmic reticulum stress beyond phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2a. J Biol Chem. 2014 May 02; 289(18):12593-611. PMID: 24648524; PMCID: PMC4007450.
    30. Kelleher AR, Gordon BS, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Changes in REDD1, REDD2, and atrogene mRNA expression are prevented in skeletal muscle fixed in a stretched position during hindlimb immobilization. Physiol Rep. 2014 Feb 01; 2(2):e00246. PMID: 24744910; PMCID: PMC3966240.
    31. Gordon BS, Kazi AA, Coleman CS, Dennis MD, Chau V, Jefferson LS, Kimball SR. RhoA modulates signaling through the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) in mammalian cells. Cell Signal. 2014 Mar; 26(3):461-7. PMID: 24316235; PMCID: PMC3951878.
    32. Kimball SR. Integration of signals generated by nutrients, hormones, and exercise in skeletal muscle. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Jan; 99(1):237S-242S. PMID: 24284445; PMCID: PMC3862457.
    33. Dennis MD, McGhee NK, Jefferson LS, Kimball SR. Regulated in DNA damage and development 1 (REDD1) promotes cell survival during serum deprivation by sustaining repression of signaling through the mechanistic target of rapamycin in complex 1 (mTORC1). Cell Signal. 2013 Dec; 25(12):2709-16. PMID: 24018049; PMCID: PMC3867791.
    34. Nie J, Liu X, Lilley BN, Zhang H, Pan YA, Kimball SR, Zhang J, Zhang W, Wang L, Jefferson LS, Sanes JR, Han X, Shi Y. SAD-A kinase controls islet ß-cell size and function as a mediator of mTORC1 signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Aug 20; 110(34):13857-62. PMID: 23922392; PMCID: PMC3752253.
    35. Boutry C, El-Kadi SW, Suryawan A, Wheatley SM, Orellana RA, Kimball SR, Nguyen HV, Davis TA. Leucine pulses enhance skeletal muscle protein synthesis during continuous feeding in neonatal pigs. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Sep 01; 305(5):E620-31. PMID: 23839523; PMCID: PMC3761169.
    36. Gordon BS, Kelleher AR, Kimball SR. Regulation of muscle protein synthesis and the effects of catabolic states. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2013 Oct; 45(10):2147-57. PMID: 23769967; PMCID: PMC3759561.
    37. El-Kadi SW, Gazzaneo MC, Suryawan A, Orellana RA, Torrazza RM, Srivastava N, Kimball SR, Nguyen HV, Fiorotto ML, Davis TA. Viscera and muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs is increased more by intermittent bolus than by continuous feeding. Pediatr Res. 2013 Aug; 74(2):154-62. PMID: 23736770; PMCID: PMC4183190.
    38. Tuckow AP, Kazi AA, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Identification of ubiquitin-modified lysine residues and novel phosphorylation sites on eukaryotic initiation factor 2B epsilon. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013 Jun 21; 436(1):41-6. PMID: 23707720; PMCID: PMC3744827.
    39. Krokowski D, Han J, Saikia M, Majumder M, Yuan CL, Guan BJ, Bevilacqua E, Bussolati O, Bröer S, Arvan P, Tchórzewski M, Snider MD, Puchowicz M, Croniger CM, Kimball SR, Pan T, Koromilas AE, Kaufman RJ, Hatzoglou M. A self-defeating anabolic program leads to ß-cell apoptosis in endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced diabetes via regulation of amino acid flux. J Biol Chem. 2013 Jun 14; 288(24):17202-13. PMID: 23645676; PMCID: PMC3682525.
    40. Dennis MD, Shenberger JS, Stanley BA, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Hyperglycemia mediates a shift from cap-dependent to cap-independent translation via a 4E-BP1-dependent mechanism. Diabetes. 2013 Jul; 62(7):2204-14. PMID: 23434932; PMCID: PMC3712054.
    41. Kimball SR. Does enteral protein administration stimulate duodenal mucosa protein synthesis through an mTORC1-independent signaling pathway? Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Feb; 97(2):235-6. PMID: 23283499; PMCID: PMC3545679.
    42. Kelleher AR, Kimball SR, Dennis MD, Schilder RJ, Jefferson LS. The mTORC1 signaling repressors REDD1/2 are rapidly induced and activation of p70S6K1 by leucine is defective in skeletal muscle of an immobilized rat hindlimb. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Jan 15; 304(2):E229-36. PMID: 23193052; PMCID: PMC3543567.
    43. Cheng Y, Ren X, Zhang Y, Shan Y, Huber-Keener KJ, Zhang L, Kimball SR, Harvey H, Jefferson LS, Yang JM. Integrated regulation of autophagy and apoptosis by EEF2K controls cellular fate and modulates the efficacy of curcumin and velcade against tumor cells. Autophagy. 2013 Feb 01; 9(2):208-19. PMID: 23182879; PMCID: PMC3552884.
    44. Dennis MD, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1)-mediated phosphorylation is governed by competition between substrates for interaction with raptor. J Biol Chem. 2013 Jan 04; 288(1):10-9. PMID: 23184952; PMCID: PMC3537002.
    45. Dennis MD, Jefferson LS, Kimball SR. Role of p70S6K1-mediated phosphorylation of eIF4B and PDCD4 proteins in the regulation of protein synthesis. J Biol Chem. 2012 Dec 14; 287(51):42890-9. PMID: 23105104; PMCID: PMC3522285.
    46. Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Induction of REDD1 gene expression in the liver in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress is mediated through a PERK, eIF2a phosphorylation, ATF4-dependent cascade. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012 Oct 26; 427(3):485-9. PMID: 23000413; PMCID: PMC3482272.
    47. D'Cruz TS, Weibley BN, Kimball SR, Barber AJ. Post-translational processing of synaptophysin in the rat retina is disrupted by diabetes. PLoS One. 2012; 7(9):e44711. PMID: 22970294; PMCID: PMC3435316.
    48. Schilder RJ, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Cell-autonomous regulation of fast troponin T pre-mRNA alternative splicing in response to mechanical stretch. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2012 Aug 01; 303(3):C298-307. PMID: 22592404; PMCID: PMC3423020.
    49. Woo CW, Kutzler L, Kimball SR, Tabas I. Toll-like receptor activation suppresses ER stress factor CHOP and translation inhibition through activation of eIF2B. Nat Cell Biol. 2012 Jan 08; 14(2):192-200. PMID: 22231169; PMCID: PMC3271190.
    50. Gazzaneo MC, Suryawan A, Orellana RA, Torrazza RM, El-Kadi SW, Wilson FA, Kimball SR, Srivastava N, Nguyen HV, Fiorotto ML, Davis TA. Intermittent bolus feeding has a greater stimulatory effect on protein synthesis in skeletal muscle than continuous feeding in neonatal pigs. J Nutr. 2011 Dec; 141(12):2152-8. PMID: 22013195; PMCID: PMC3223872.
    51. Gazzaneo MC, Orellana RA, Suryawan A, Tuckow AP, Kimball SR, Wilson FA, Nguyen HV, Torrazza RM, Fiorotto ML, Davis TA. Differential regulation of protein synthesis and mTOR signaling in skeletal muscle and visceral tissues of neonatal pigs after a meal. Pediatr Res. 2011 Sep; 70(3):253-60. PMID: 21654549; PMCID: PMC3152601.
    52. Dennis MD, Schrufer TL, Bronson SK, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Hyperglycemia-induced O-GlcNAcylation and truncation of 4E-BP1 protein in liver of a mouse model of type 1 diabetes. J Biol Chem. 2011 Sep 30; 286(39):34286-97. PMID: 21840999; PMCID: PMC3190771.
    53. Kumari R, Willing LB, Jefferson LS, Simpson IA, Kimball SR. REDD1 (regulated in development and DNA damage response 1) expression in skeletal muscle as a surrogate biomarker of the efficiency of glucocorticoid receptor blockade. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011 Sep 09; 412(4):644-7. PMID: 21856283; PMCID: PMC3175593.
    54. Elsby R, Heiber JF, Reid P, Kimball SR, Pavitt GD, Barber GN. The alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2B (eIF2B) is required for eIF2-mediated translational suppression of vesicular stomatitis virus. J Virol. 2011 Oct; 85(19):9716-25. PMID: 21795329; PMCID: PMC3196436.
    55. Bixler GV, Vanguilder HD, Brucklacher RM, Kimball SR, Bronson SK, Freeman WM. Chronic insulin treatment of diabetes does not fully normalize alterations in the retinal transcriptome. BMC Med Genomics. 2011 May 15; 4:40. PMID: 21575160; PMCID: PMC3113923.
    56. Schilder RJ, Kimball SR, Marden JH, Jefferson LS. Body weight-dependent troponin T alternative splicing is evolutionarily conserved from insects to mammals and is partially impaired in skeletal muscle of obese rats. J Exp Biol. 2011 May 01; 214(Pt 9):1523-32. PMID: 21490260; PMCID: PMC3076076.
    57. She P, Zhang Z, Marchionini D, Diaz WC, Jetton TJ, Kimball SR, Vary TC, Lang CH, Lynch CJ. Molecular characterization of skeletal muscle atrophy in the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Jul; 301(1):E49-61. PMID: 21505144; PMCID: PMC3129844.
    58. Winter JN, Jefferson LS, Kimball SR. ERK and Akt signaling pathways function through parallel mechanisms to promote mTORC1 signaling. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2011 May; 300(5):C1172-80. PMID: 21289294; PMCID: PMC3093949.
    59. Fogle RL, Hollenbeak CS, Stanley BA, Vary TC, Kimball SR, Lynch CJ. Functional proteomic analysis reveals sex-dependent differences in structural and energy-producing myocardial proteins in rat model of alcoholic cardiomyopathy. Physiol Genomics. 2011 Apr 12; 43(7):346-56. PMID: 21245415; PMCID: PMC3092335.
    60. Dennis MD, Baum JI, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Mechanisms involved in the coordinate regulation of mTORC1 by insulin and amino acids. J Biol Chem. 2011 Mar 11; 286(10):8287-96. PMID: 21239491; PMCID: PMC3048714.
    61. VanGuilder HD, Bixler GV, Kutzler L, Brucklacher RM, Bronson SK, Kimball SR, Freeman WM. Multi-modal proteomic analysis of retinal protein expression alterations in a rat model of diabetic retinopathy. PLoS One. 2011 Jan 13; 6(1):e16271. PMID: 21249158; PMCID: PMC3020973.
    62. Tuckow AP, Jefferson SJ, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Simvastatin represses protein synthesis in the muscle-derived C2C12 cell line with a concomitant reduction in eukaryotic initiation factor 2B expression. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Mar; 300(3):E564-70. PMID: 21224482; PMCID: PMC3064004.
    63. Martin L, Kimball SR, Gardner LB. Regulation of the unfolded protein response by eif2Bdelta isoforms. J Biol Chem. 2010 Oct 15; 285(42):31944-53. PMID: 20709751; PMCID: PMC2952195.
    64. Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Control of translation initiation through integration of signals generated by hormones, nutrients, and exercise. J Biol Chem. 2010 Sep 17; 285(38):29027-32. PMID: 20576612; PMCID: PMC2937931.
    65. Schrufer TL, Antonetti DA, Sonenberg N, Kimball SR, Gardner TW, Jefferson LS. Ablation of 4E-BP1/2 prevents hyperglycemia-mediated induction of VEGF expression in the rodent retina and in Muller cells in culture. Diabetes. 2010 Sep; 59(9):2107-16. PMID: 20547975; PMCID: PMC2927931.
    66. Tuckow AP, Vary TC, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Ectopic expression of eIF2Bepsilon in rat skeletal muscle rescues the sepsis-induced reduction in guanine nucleotide exchange activity and protein synthesis. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Aug; 299(2):E241-8. PMID: 20484009; PMCID: PMC2928514.
    67. Winter JN, Fox TE, Kester M, Jefferson LS, Kimball SR. Phosphatidic acid mediates activation of mTORC1 through the ERK signaling pathway. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2010 Aug; 299(2):C335-44. PMID: 20427710; PMCID: PMC2928642.
    68. Harding SV, Adegoke OA, Fraser KG, Marliss EB, Chevalier S, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS, Wykes LJ. Maintaining adequate nutrition, not probiotic administration, prevents growth stunting and maintains skeletal muscle protein synthesis rates in a piglet model of colitis. Pediatr Res. 2010 Mar; 67(3):268-73. PMID: 19952868; PMCID: PMC2826364.
    69. Freeman WM, Bixler GV, Brucklacher RM, Walsh E, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS, Bronson SK. Transcriptomic comparison of the retina in two mouse models of diabetes. J Ocul Biol Dis Infor. 2009 Dec 12; 2(4):202-213. PMID: 20157355.
      View in: PubMed
    70. Freeman WM, Bixler GV, Brucklacher RM, Lin CM, Patel KM, VanGuilder HD, LaNoue KF, Kimball SR, Barber AJ, Antonetti DA, Gardner TW, Bronson SK. A multistep validation process of biomarkers for preclinical drug development. Pharmacogenomics J. 2010 Oct; 10(5):385-95. PMID: 19997081.
      View in: PubMed
    71. Nguyen CH, Ming H, Zhao P, Hugendubler L, Gros R, Kimball SR, Chidiac P. Translational control by RGS2. J Cell Biol. 2009 Sep 07; 186(5):755-65. PMID: 19736320; PMCID: PMC2742185.
    72. Wilson FA, Suryawan A, Orellana RA, Kimball SR, Gazzaneo MC, Nguyen HV, Fiorotto ML, Davis TA. Feeding rapidly stimulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs by enhancing translation initiation. J Nutr. 2009 Oct; 139(10):1873-80. PMID: 19692527; PMCID: PMC2744610.
    73. Baum JI, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Glucagon acts in a dominant manner to repress insulin-induced mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 signaling in perfused rat liver. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Aug; 297(2):E410-5. PMID: 19509187; PMCID: PMC2724106.
    74. Dang Do AN, Kimball SR, Cavener DR, Jefferson LS. eIF2alpha kinases GCN2 and PERK modulate transcription and translation of distinct sets of mRNAs in mouse liver. Physiol Genomics. 2009 Aug 07; 38(3):328-41. PMID: 19509078; PMCID: PMC3171828.
    75. McGhee NK, Jefferson LS, Kimball SR. Elevated corticosterone associated with food deprivation upregulates expression in rat skeletal muscle of the mTORC1 repressor, REDD1. J Nutr. 2009 May; 139(5):828-34. PMID: 19297425; PMCID: PMC2714387.
    76. Zhang L, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS, Shenberger JS. Hydrogen peroxide impairs insulin-stimulated assembly of mTORC1. Free Radic Biol Med. 2009 Jun 01; 46(11):1500-9. PMID: 19281842; PMCID: PMC2677139.
    77. Wang G, Guo X, Silveyra P, Kimball SR, Floros J. Cap-independent translation of human SP-A 5'-UTR variants: a double-loop structure and cis-element contribution. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2009 Apr; 296(4):L635-47. PMID: 19181744; PMCID: PMC2670766.
    78. Whitney ML, Jefferson LS, Kimball SR. ATF4 is necessary and sufficient for ER stress-induced upregulation of REDD1 expression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009 Feb 06; 379(2):451-5. PMID: 19114033; PMCID: PMC2656673.
    79. Orellana RA, Suryawan A, Kimball SR, Wu G, Nguyen HV, Jefferson LS, Davis TA. Insulin signaling in skeletal muscle and liver of neonatal pigs during endotoxemia. Pediatr Res. 2008 Nov; 64(5):505-10. PMID: 18596577; PMCID: PMC2774270.
    80. Gallagher JW, Kubica N, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Reduced eukaryotic initiation factor 2Bepsilon-subunit expression suppresses the transformed phenotype of cells overexpressing the protein. Cancer Res. 2008 Nov 01; 68(21):8752-60. PMID: 18974117; PMCID: PMC2664734.
    81. Adegoke OA, Chevalier S, Morais JA, Gougeon R, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS, Wing SS, Marliss EB. Fed-state clamp stimulates cellular mechanisms of muscle protein anabolism and modulates glucose disposal in normal men. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Jan; 296(1):E105-13. PMID: 18957614; PMCID: PMC2636991.
    82. Dardevet D, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS, Cherrington AD, Rémond D, DiCostanzo CA, Moore MC. Portal infusion of amino acids is more efficient than peripheral infusion in stimulating liver protein synthesis at the same hepatic amino acid load in dogs. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Oct; 88(4):986-96. PMID: 18842785; PMCID: PMC2750082.
    83. Reiter AK, Bolster DR, Crozier SJ, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. AMPK represses TOP mRNA translation but not global protein synthesis in liver. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008 Sep 19; 374(2):345-50. PMID: 18638456; PMCID: PMC2533707.
    84. Yerlikaya A, Kimball SR, Stanley BA. Phosphorylation of eIF2alpha in response to 26S proteasome inhibition is mediated by the haem-regulated inhibitor (HRI) kinase. Biochem J. 2008 Jun 15; 412(3):579-88. PMID: 18290760; PMCID: PMC2842126.
    85. Kubica N, Crispino JL, Gallagher JW, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 is both necessary and sufficient to stimulate eukaryotic initiation factor 2Bvarepsilon mRNA translation and protein synthesis. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2008; 40(11):2522-33. PMID: 18556237; PMCID: PMC2601645.
    86. Kimball SR, Abbas A, Jefferson LS. Melatonin represses oxidative stress-induced activation of the MAP kinase and mTOR signaling pathways in H4IIE hepatoma cells through inhibition of Ras. J Pineal Res. 2008 May; 44(4):379-86. PMID: 18410586; PMCID: PMC2638075.
    87. Jamison JT, Kayali F, Rudolph J, Marshall M, Kimball SR, DeGracia DJ. Persistent redistribution of poly-adenylated mRNAs correlates with translation arrest and cell death following global brain ischemia and reperfusion. Neuroscience. 2008 Jun 23; 154(2):504-20. PMID: 18456413; PMCID: PMC2494580.
    88. Kimball SR, Do AN, Kutzler L, Cavener DR, Jefferson LS. Rapid turnover of the mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) repressor REDD1 and activation of mTORC1 signaling following inhibition of protein synthesis. J Biol Chem. 2008 Feb 08; 283(6):3465-75. PMID: 18070882; PMCID: PMC2654224.
    89. Kimball SR. The role of nutrition in stimulating muscle protein accretion at the molecular level. Biochem Soc Trans. 2007 Nov; 35(Pt 5):1298-301. PMID: 17956335.
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    90. Manni A, Rager T, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS, Washington S, Hu X, Verderame MF. Effects of alpha-difluoromethylornithine on thrombospondin-1 production by human breast cancer cells. Int J Oncol. 2007 Nov; 31(5):1187-91. PMID: 17912446.
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    91. Shaheen HH, Horetsky RL, Kimball SR, Murthi A, Jefferson LS, Hopper AK. Retrograde nuclear accumulation of cytoplasmic tRNA in rat hepatoma cells in response to amino acid deprivation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 May 22; 104(21):8845-50. PMID: 17502605; PMCID: PMC1868590.
    92. Vary TC, Anthony JC, Jefferson LS, Kimball SR, Lynch CJ. Rapamycin blunts nutrient stimulation of eIF4G, but not PKCepsilon phosphorylation, in skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Jul; 293(1):E188-96. PMID: 17389711.
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    93. Kimball SR. Interaction between the AMP-activated protein kinase and mTOR signaling pathways. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006 Nov; 38(11):1958-64. PMID: 17095930.
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    94. Wang H, Kubica N, Ellisen LW, Jefferson LS, Kimball SR. Dexamethasone represses signaling through the mammalian target of rapamycin in muscle cells by enhancing expression of REDD1. J Biol Chem. 2006 Dec 22; 281(51):39128-34. PMID: 17074751.
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    95. Orellana RA, Kimball SR, Suryawan A, Escobar J, Nguyen HV, Jefferson LS, Davis TA. Insulin stimulates muscle protein synthesis in neonates during endotoxemia despite repression of translation initiation. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Feb; 292(2):E629-36. PMID: 17047163.
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    96. Ramesh G, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS, Reeves WB. Endotoxin and cisplatin synergistically stimulate TNF-alpha production by renal epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2007 Feb; 292(2):F812-9. PMID: 17032936.
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    97. Antonetti DA, Barber AJ, Bronson SK, Freeman WM, Gardner TW, Jefferson LS, Kester M, Kimball SR, Krady JK, LaNoue KF, Norbury CC, Quinn PG, Sandirasegarane L, Simpson IA. Diabetic retinopathy: seeing beyond glucose-induced microvascular disease. Diabetes. 2006 Sep; 55(9):2401-11. PMID: 16936187.
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    98. Vary TC, Kimball SR, Sumner A. Sex-dependent differences in the regulation of myocardial protein synthesis following long-term ethanol consumption. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007 Feb; 292(2):R778-87. PMID: 16946086.
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    99. Sans MD, Tashiro M, Vogel NL, Kimball SR, D'Alecy LG, Williams JA. Leucine activates pancreatic translational machinery in rats and mice through mTOR independently of CCK and insulin. J Nutr. 2006 Jul; 136(7):1792-9. PMID: 16772439.
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    100. Williamson DL, Bolster DR, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Time course changes in signaling pathways and protein synthesis in C2C12 myotubes following AMPK activation by AICAR. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Jul; 291(1):E80-9. PMID: 16760336.
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    101. Crozier SJ, Zhang X, Wang J, Cheung J, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Activation of signaling pathways and regulatory mechanisms of mRNA translation following myocardial ischemia-reperfusion. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2006 Aug; 101(2):576-82. PMID: 16690784; PMCID: PMC2631174.
    102. Williamson DL, Kubica N, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Exercise-induced alterations in extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling to regulatory mechanisms of mRNA translation in mouse muscle. J Physiol. 2006 Jun 01; 573(Pt 2):497-510. PMID: 16543272; PMCID: PMC1779730.
    103. Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. New functions for amino acids: effects on gene transcription and translation. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Feb; 83(2):500S-507S. PMID: 16470021.
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    104. Palmer LK, Rannels SL, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS, Keil RL. Inhibition of mammalian translation initiation by volatile anesthetics. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Jun; 290(6):E1267-75. PMID: 16434554.
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    105. Kubica N, Jefferson LS, Kimball SR. Eukaryotic initiation factor 2B and its role in alterations in mRNA translation that occur under a number of pathophysiological and physiological conditions. Prog Nucleic Acid Res Mol Biol. 2006; 81:271-96. PMID: 16891174.
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    106. Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Signaling pathways and molecular mechanisms through which branched-chain amino acids mediate translational control of protein synthesis. J Nutr. 2006 Jan; 136(1 Suppl):227S-31S. PMID: 16365087.
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    107. Kline CL, Schrufer TL, Jefferson LS, Kimball SR. Glucosamine-induced phosphorylation of the alpha-subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 is mediated by the protein kinase R-like endoplasmic-reticulum associated kinase. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2006; 38(5-6):1004-14. PMID: 16324875.
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    108. Escobar J, Frank JW, Suryawan A, Nguyen HV, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS, Davis TA. Regulation of cardiac and skeletal muscle protein synthesis by individual branched-chain amino acids in neonatal pigs. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Apr; 290(4):E612-21. PMID: 16278252.
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    109. Kantor L, Harding HP, Ron D, Schiffmann R, Kaneski CR, Kimball SR, Elroy-Stein O. Heightened stress response in primary fibroblasts expressing mutant eIF2B genes from CACH/VWM leukodystrophy patients. Hum Genet. 2005 Oct; 118(1):99-106. PMID: 16041584.
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    110. Frank JW, Escobar J, Suryawan A, Nguyen HV, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS, Davis TA. Dietary protein and lactose increase translation initiation factor activation and tissue protein synthesis in neonatal pigs. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Feb; 290(2):E225-33. PMID: 16144813.
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    111. Frank JW, Escobar J, Suryawan A, Kimball SR, Nguyen HV, Jefferson LS, Davis TA. Protein synthesis and translation initiation factor activation in neonatal pigs fed increasing levels of dietary protein. J Nutr. 2005 Jun; 135(6):1374-81. PMID: 15930440.
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    112. Crozier SJ, Vary TC, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Cellular energy status modulates translational control mechanisms in ischemic-reperfused rat hearts. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2005 Sep; 289(3):H1242-50. PMID: 15894572.
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    113. Crozier SJ, Kimball SR, Emmert SW, Anthony JC, Jefferson LS. Oral leucine administration stimulates protein synthesis in rat skeletal muscle. J Nutr. 2005 Mar; 135(3):376-82. PMID: 15735066.
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    114. Reiter AK, Crozier SJ, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Meal feeding alters translational control of gene expression in rat liver. J Nutr. 2005 Mar; 135(3):367-75. PMID: 15735065.
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    115. Williamson DL, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Acute treatment with TNF-alpha attenuates insulin-stimulated protein synthesis in cultures of C2C12 myotubes through a MEK1-sensitive mechanism. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Jul; 289(1):E95-104. PMID: 15701678.
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    116. Dufner DA, Bederman IR, Brunengraber DZ, Rachdaoui N, Ismail-Beigi F, Siegfried BA, Kimball SR, Previs SF. Using 2H2O to study the influence of feeding on protein synthesis: effect of isotope equilibration in vivo vs. in cell culture. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Jun; 288(6):E1277-83. PMID: 15671077.
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    117. Escobar J, Frank JW, Suryawan A, Nguyen HV, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS, Davis TA. Physiological rise in plasma leucine stimulates muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs by enhancing translation initiation factor activation. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2005 May; 288(5):E914-21. PMID: 15644455.
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    118. Reiter AK, Bolster DR, Crozier SJ, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Repression of protein synthesis and mTOR signaling in rat liver mediated by the AMPK activator aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleoside. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2005 May; 288(5):E980-8. PMID: 15613684.
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    119. Kubica N, Bolster DR, Farrell PA, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Resistance exercise increases muscle protein synthesis and translation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2Bepsilon mRNA in a mammalian target of rapamycin-dependent manner. J Biol Chem. 2005 Mar 04; 280(9):7570-80. PMID: 15591312.
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    120. Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Role of amino acids in the translational control of protein synthesis in mammals. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2005 Feb; 16(1):21-7. PMID: 15659336.
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    121. Reiter AK, Anthony TG, Anthony JC, Jefferson LS, Kimball SR. The mTOR signaling pathway mediates control of ribosomal protein mRNA translation in rat liver. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2004 Nov; 36(11):2169-79. PMID: 15313464.
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    122. Prod'homme M, Balage M, Debras E, Farges MC, Kimball S, Jefferson L, Grizard J. Differential effects of insulin and dietary amino acids on muscle protein synthesis in adult and old rats. J Physiol. 2005 Feb 15; 563(Pt 1):235-48. PMID: 15513948; PMCID: PMC1665559.
    123. Nelson-Degrave VL, Wickenheisser JK, Hendricks KL, Asano T, Fujishiro M, Legro RS, Kimball SR, Strauss JF, McAllister JM. Alterations in mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase and extracellular regulated kinase signaling in theca cells contribute to excessive androgen production in polycystic ovary syndrome. Mol Endocrinol. 2005 Feb; 19(2):379-90. PMID: 15514033.
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    124. Kimball SR, Siegfried BA, Jefferson LS. Glucagon represses signaling through the mammalian target of rapamycin in rat liver by activating AMP-activated protein kinase. J Biol Chem. 2004 Dec 24; 279(52):54103-9. PMID: 15494402.
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    125. Goggin MM, Nelsen CJ, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS, Morley SJ, Albrecht JH. Rapamycin-sensitive induction of eukaryotic initiation factor 4F in regenerating mouse liver. Hepatology. 2004 Sep; 40(3):537-44. PMID: 15349891.
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    126. Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Amino acids as regulators of gene expression. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2004 Aug 17; 1(1):3. PMID: 15507151.
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    127. Fogli A, Schiffmann R, Hugendubler L, Combes P, Bertini E, Rodriguez D, Kimball SR, Boespflug-Tanguy O. Decreased guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity in eIF2B-mutated patients. Eur J Hum Genet. 2004 Jul; 12(7):561-6. PMID: 15054402.
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    128. Bolster DR, Vary TC, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Leucine regulates translation initiation in rat skeletal muscle via enhanced eIF4G phosphorylation. J Nutr. 2004 Jul; 134(7):1704-10. PMID: 15226457.
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    129. Kimball SR, O'Malley JP, Anthony JC, Crozier SJ, Jefferson LS. Assessment of biomarkers of protein anabolism in skeletal muscle during the life span of the rat: sarcopenia despite elevated protein synthesis. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Oct; 287(4):E772-80. PMID: 15187001.
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    130. Bolster DR, Jefferson LS, Kimball SR. Regulation of protein synthesis associated with skeletal muscle hypertrophy by insulin-, amino acid- and exercise-induced signalling. Proc Nutr Soc. 2004 May; 63(2):351-6. PMID: 15294054.
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    131. Liu Z, Li G, Kimball SR, Jahn LA, Barrett EJ. Glucocorticoids modulate amino acid-induced translation initiation in human skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Aug; 287(2):E275-81. PMID: 15039148.
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    132. Kimball SR, Horetsky RL, Jefferson LS. A microtiter plate assay for assessing the interaction of eukaryotic initiation factor eIF4E with eIF4G and eIF4E binding protein-1. Anal Biochem. 2004 Feb 15; 325(2):364-8. PMID: 14751272.
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    133. O'Connor PM, Kimball SR, Suryawan A, Bush JA, Nguyen HV, Jefferson LS, Davis TA. Regulation of neonatal liver protein synthesis by insulin and amino acids in pigs. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Jun; 286(6):E994-E1003. PMID: 14761876.
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    134. Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Regulation of global and specific mRNA translation by oral administration of branched-chain amino acids. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Jan 09; 313(2):423-7. PMID: 14684179.
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    135. Suryawan A, O'Connor PM, Kimball SR, Bush JA, Nguyen HV, Jefferson LS, Davis TA. Amino acids do not alter the insulin-induced activation of the insulin signaling pathway in neonatal pigs. J Nutr. 2004 Jan; 134(1):24-30. PMID: 14704288.
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    136. Davis TA, Bush JA, Vann RC, Suryawan A, Kimball SR, Burrin DG. Somatotropin regulation of protein metabolism in pigs. J Anim Sci. 2004; 82 E-Suppl:E207-213. PMID: 15471799.
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    137. Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Molecular mechanisms through which amino acids mediate signaling through the mammalian target of rapamycin. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2004 Jan; 7(1):39-44. PMID: 15090902.
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    138. Orellana RA, Kimball SR, Nguyen HV, Bush JA, Suryawan A, Thivierge MC, Jefferson LS, Davis TA. Regulation of muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs during prolonged endotoxemia. Pediatr Res. 2004 Mar; 55(3):442-9. PMID: 14681494.
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    139. Wu X, Reiter CE, Antonetti DA, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS, Gardner TW. Insulin promotes rat retinal neuronal cell survival in a p70S6K-dependent manner. J Biol Chem. 2004 Mar 05; 279(10):9167-75. PMID: 14660591.
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    140. Kubica N, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS, Farrell PA. Alterations in the expression of mRNAs and proteins that code for species relevant to eIF2B activity after an acute bout of resistance exercise. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2004 Feb; 96(2):679-87. PMID: 14565967.
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    141. Lang CH, Frost RA, Deshpande N, Kumar V, Vary TC, Jefferson LS, Kimball SR. Alcohol impairs leucine-mediated phosphorylation of 4E-BP1, S6K1, eIF4G, and mTOR in skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Dec; 285(6):E1205-15. PMID: 12944322.
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    142. Bolster DR, Kubica N, Crozier SJ, Williamson DL, Farrell PA, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Immediate response of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-mediated signalling following acute resistance exercise in rat skeletal muscle. J Physiol. 2003 Nov 15; 553(Pt 1):213-20. PMID: 12937293; PMCID: PMC2343483.
    143. Bolster DR, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Translational control mechanisms modulate skeletal muscle gene expression during hypertrophy. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2003 Jul; 31(3):111-6. PMID: 12882475.
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    144. Pakay JL, Hobbs AA, Kimball SR, Guppy M. The role of eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha during the metabolic depression associated with estivation. J Exp Biol. 2003 Jul; 206(Pt 14):2363-71. PMID: 12796453.
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    145. Crozier SJ, Anthony JC, Schworer CM, Reiter AK, Anthony TG, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Tissue-specific regulation of protein synthesis by insulin and free fatty acids. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Oct; 285(4):E754-62. PMID: 12837665.
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    146. Jefferson LS, Kimball SR. Amino acids as regulators of gene expression at the level of mRNA translation. J Nutr. 2003 Jun; 133(6 Suppl 1):2046S-2051S. PMID: 12771363.
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    147. Kimball SR, Orellana RA, O'Connor PM, Suryawan A, Bush JA, Nguyen HV, Thivierge MC, Jefferson LS, Davis TA. Endotoxin induces differential regulation of mTOR-dependent signaling in skeletal muscle and liver of neonatal pigs. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Sep; 285(3):E637-44. PMID: 12773308.
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    148. Bush JA, Kimball SR, O'Connor PM, Suryawan A, Orellana RA, Nguyen HV, Jefferson LS, Davis TA. Translational control of protein synthesis in muscle and liver of growth hormone-treated pigs. Endocrinology. 2003 Apr; 144(4):1273-83. PMID: 12639910.
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    149. O'Connor PM, Kimball SR, Suryawan A, Bush JA, Nguyen HV, Jefferson LS, Davis TA. Regulation of translation initiation by insulin and amino acids in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Jul; 285(1):E40-53. PMID: 12637260.
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    150. Kobayashi H, Børsheim E, Anthony TG, Traber DL, Badalamenti J, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS, Wolfe RR. Reduced amino acid availability inhibits muscle protein synthesis and decreases activity of initiation factor eIF2B. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Mar; 284(3):E488-98. PMID: 12556349.
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    151. Vary TC, Deiter G, Kimball SR. Phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor eIF2Bepsilon in skeletal muscle during sepsis. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Nov; 283(5):E1032-9. PMID: 12376332.
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    152. Kimball SR, Horetsky RL, Ron D, Jefferson LS, Harding HP. Mammalian stress granules represent sites of accumulation of stalled translation initiation complexes. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2003 Feb; 284(2):C273-84. PMID: 12388085.
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    153. Zhang P, McGrath BC, Reinert J, Olsen DS, Lei L, Gill S, Wek SA, Vattem KM, Wek RC, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS, Cavener DR. The GCN2 eIF2alpha kinase is required for adaptation to amino acid deprivation in mice. Mol Cell Biol. 2002 Oct; 22(19):6681-8. PMID: 12215525; PMCID: PMC134046.
    154. Kimball SR, Farrell PA, Jefferson LS. Invited Review: Role of insulin in translational control of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle by amino acids or exercise. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2002 Sep; 93(3):1168-80. PMID: 12183515.
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    155. Crozier SJ, Bolster DR, Reiter AK, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Beta -oxidation of free fatty acids is required to maintain translational control of protein synthesis in heart. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Dec; 283(6):E1144-50. PMID: 12388121.
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    156. Shah OJ, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. The Src-family tyrosine kinase inhibitor PP1 interferes with the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases. Biochem J. 2002 Aug 15; 366(Pt 1):57-62. PMID: 12014987; PMCID: PMC1222761.
    157. Bolster DR, Crozier SJ, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. AMP-activated protein kinase suppresses protein synthesis in rat skeletal muscle through down-regulated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. J Biol Chem. 2002 Jul 05; 277(27):23977-80. PMID: 11997383.
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    158. Anthony JC, Lang CH, Crozier SJ, Anthony TG, MacLean DA, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Contribution of insulin to the translational control of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle by leucine. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2002 May; 282(5):E1092-101. PMID: 11934675.
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    159. Kimball SR. Regulation of global and specific mRNA translation by amino acids. J Nutr. 2002 May; 132(5):883-6. PMID: 11983807.
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    160. Anthony JC, Reiter AK, Anthony TG, Crozier SJ, Lang CH, MacLean DA, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Orally administered leucine enhances protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of diabetic rats in the absence of increases in 4E-BP1 or S6K1 phosphorylation. Diabetes. 2002 Apr; 51(4):928-36. PMID: 11916909.
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    161. Kimball SR, Farrell PA, Nguyen HV, Jefferson LS, Davis TA. Developmental decline in components of signal transduction pathways regulating protein synthesis in pig muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Mar; 282(3):E585-92. PMID: 11832361.
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    162. Sans MD, Kimball SR, Williams JA. Effect of CCK and intracellular calcium to regulate eIF2B and protein synthesis in rat pancreatic acinar cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2002 Feb; 282(2):G267-76. PMID: 11804848.
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    163. Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Control of protein synthesis by amino acid availability. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2002 Jan; 5(1):63-7. PMID: 11790952.
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    164. Jefferson LS, Kimball SR. Translational control of protein synthesis: implications for understanding changes in skeletal muscle mass. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2001 Dec; 11 Suppl:S143-9. PMID: 11915913.
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    165. Schneider R, Agol VI, Andino R, Bayard F, Cavener DR, Chappell SA, Chen JJ, Darlix JL, Dasgupta A, Donzé O, Duncan R, Elroy-Stein O, Farabaugh PJ, Filipowicz W, Gale M, Gehrke L, Goldman E, Groner Y, Harford JB, Hatzglou M, He B, Hellen CU, Hentze MW, Hershey J, Hershey P, Hohn T, Holcik M, Hunter CP, Igarashi K, Jackson R, Jagus R, Jefferson LS, Joshi B, Kaempfer R, Katze M, Kaufman RJ, Kiledjian M, Kimball SR, Kimchi A, Kirkegaard K, Koromilas AE, Krug RM, Kruys V, Lamphear BJ, Lemon S, Lloyd RE, Maquat LE, Martinez-Salas E, Mathews MB, Mauro VP, Miyamoto S, Mohr I, Morris DR, Moss EG, Nakashima N, Palmenberg A, Parkin NT, Pe'ery T, Pelletier J, Peltz S, Pestova TV, Pilipenko EV, Prats AC, Racaniello V, Read GS, Rhoads RE, Richter JD, Rivera-Pomar R, Rouault T, Sachs A, Sarnow P, Scheper GC, Schiff L, Schoenberg DR, Semler BL, Siddiqui A, Skern T, Sonenberg N, Sossin W, Standart N, Tahara SM, Thomas AA, Toulmé JJ, Wilusz J, Wimmer E, Witherell G, Wormington M. New ways of initiating translation in eukaryotes. Mol Cell Biol. 2001 Dec; 21(23):8238-46. PMID: 11710333; PMCID: PMC99989.
    166. Shah OJ, Iniguez-Lluhi JA, Romanelli A, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. The activated glucocorticoid receptor modulates presumptive autoregulation of ribosomal protein S6 protein kinase, p70 S6K. J Biol Chem. 2002 Jan 25; 277(4):2525-33. PMID: 11705993.
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    167. Vary TC, Jefferson LS, Kimball SR. Insulin fails to stimulate muscle protein synthesis in sepsis despite unimpaired signaling to 4E-BP1 and S6K1. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Nov; 281(5):E1045-53. PMID: 11595662.
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    168. Jefferson LS, Kimball SR. Amino acid regulation of gene expression. J Nutr. 2001 Sep; 131(9 Suppl):2460S-6S; discussion 2486S-7S. PMID: 11533294.
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    169. Anthony TG, Reiter AK, Anthony JC, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Deficiency of dietary EAA preferentially inhibits mRNA translation of ribosomal proteins in liver of meal-fed rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Sep; 281(3):E430-9. PMID: 11500297.
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    170. Balage M, Sinaud S, Prod'homme M, Dardevet D, Vary TC, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS, Grizard J. Amino acids and insulin are both required to regulate assembly of the eIF4E. eIF4G complex in rat skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Sep; 281(3):E565-74. PMID: 11500312.
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    171. Kimball SR, Horetsky RL. Alterations in interprotein interactions between translation initiation factors assessed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2001 Aug; 33(8):797-806. PMID: 11404183.
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    172. Kostyak JC, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS, Farrell PA. Severe diabetes inhibits resistance exercise-induced increase in eukaryotic initiation factor 2B activity. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2001 Jul; 91(1):79-84. PMID: 11408416.
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    173. Lynch CJ, Patson BJ, Goodman SA, Trapolsi D, Kimball SR. Zinc stimulates the activity of the insulin- and nutrient-regulated protein kinase mTOR. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Jul; 281(1):E25-34. PMID: 11404220.
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    174. Lang CH, Kimball SR, Frost RA, Vary TC. Alcohol myopathy: impairment of protein synthesis and translation initiation. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2001 May; 33(5):457-73. PMID: 11331201.
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    175. Anthony TG, Anthony JC, Yoshizawa F, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Oral administration of leucine stimulates ribosomal protein mRNA translation but not global rates of protein synthesis in the liver of rats. J Nutr. 2001 Apr; 131(4):1171-6. PMID: 11285321.
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    176. Anthony JC, Anthony TG, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Signaling pathways involved in translational control of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle by leucine. J Nutr. 2001 Mar; 131(3):856S-860S. PMID: 11238774.
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    177. Kimball SR, Clemens MJ, Tilleray VJ, Wek RC, Horetsky RL, Jefferson LS. The double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase PKR is dispensable for regulation of translation initiation in response to either calcium mobilization from the endoplasmic reticulum or essential amino acid starvation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001 Jan 12; 280(1):293-300. PMID: 11162513.
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    178. Kimball SR. Regulation of translation initiation by amino acids in eukaryotic cells. Prog Mol Subcell Biol. 2001; 26:155-84. PMID: 11575165.
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    179. Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Regulation of protein synthesis by branched-chain amino acids. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2001 Jan; 4(1):39-43. PMID: 11122558.
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    180. Davis TA, Nguyen HV, Suryawan A, Bush JA, Jefferson LS, Kimball SR. Developmental changes in the feeding-induced stimulation of translation initiation in muscle of neonatal pigs. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Dec; 279(6):E1226-34. PMID: 11093908.
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    181. Miyamoto S, Kimball SR, Safer B. Signal transduction pathways that contribute to increased protein synthesis during T-cell activation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000 Nov 15; 1494(1-2):28-42. PMID: 11072066.
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    182. Shah OJ, Anthony JC, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Glucocorticoids oppose translational control by leucine in skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Nov; 279(5):E1185-90. PMID: 11052975.
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    183. Kimball SR, Jefferson LS, Nguyen HV, Suryawan A, Bush JA, Davis TA. Feeding stimulates protein synthesis in muscle and liver of neonatal pigs through an mTOR-dependent process. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Nov; 279(5):E1080-7. PMID: 11052963.
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    184. Vary TC, Kimball SR. Effect of sepsis on eIE4E availability in skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Nov; 279(5):E1178-84. PMID: 11052974.
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    185. Svanberg E, Frost RA, Lang CH, Isgaard J, Jefferson LS, Kimball SR, Vary TC. IGF-I/IGFBP-3 binary complex modulates sepsis-induced inhibition of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Nov; 279(5):E1145-58. PMID: 11052971.
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    186. Shah OJ, Anthony JC, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. 4E-BP1 and S6K1: translational integration sites for nutritional and hormonal information in muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Oct; 279(4):E715-29. PMID: 11001751.
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    187. Cooney RN, Kimball SR, Maish G, Shumate M, Vary TC. Effects of tumor necrosis factor-binding protein on hepatic protein synthesis during chronic sepsis. J Surg Res. 2000 Oct; 93(2):257-64. PMID: 11027468.
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    188. Anthony JC, Yoshizawa F, Anthony TG, Vary TC, Jefferson LS, Kimball SR. Leucine stimulates translation initiation in skeletal muscle of postabsorptive rats via a rapamycin-sensitive pathway. J Nutr. 2000 Oct; 130(10):2413-9. PMID: 11015466.
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    189. Pham PT, Heydrick SJ, Fox HL, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS, Lynch CJ. Assessment of cell-signaling pathways in the regulation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) by amino acids in rat adipocytes. J Cell Biochem. 2000 Sep 07; 79(3):427-41. PMID: 10972980.
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    190. Shah OJ, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Glucocorticoids abate p70(S6k) and eIF4E function in L6 skeletal myoblasts. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Jul; 279(1):E74-82. PMID: 10893325.
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    191. Anthony TG, Fabian JR, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Identification of domains within the epsilon-subunit of the translation initiation factor eIF2B that are necessary for guanine nucleotide exchange activity and eIF2B holoprotein formation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000 Jun 21; 1492(1):56-62. PMID: 10858531.
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    192. Lang CH, Frost RA, Jefferson LS, Kimball SR, Vary TC. Endotoxin-induced decrease in muscle protein synthesis is associated with changes in eIF2B, eIF4E, and IGF-I. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Jun; 278(6):E1133-43. PMID: 10827017.
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    193. Svanberg E, Ohlsson C, Kimball SR, Lundholm K. rhIGF-I/IGFBP-3 complex, but not free rhIGF-I, supports muscle protein biosynthesis in rats during semistarvation. Eur J Clin Invest. 2000 May; 30(5):438-46. PMID: 10809904.
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    194. Shah OJ, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Among translational effectors, p70S6k is uniquely sensitive to inhibition by glucocorticoids. Biochem J. 2000 Apr 15; 347(Pt 2):389-97. PMID: 10749668; PMCID: PMC1220971.
    195. Lynch CJ, Fox HL, Vary TC, Jefferson LS, Kimball SR. Regulation of amino acid-sensitive TOR signaling by leucine analogues in adipocytes. J Cell Biochem. 2000 Mar; 77(2):234-51. PMID: 10723090.
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    196. Farrell PA, Hernandez JM, Fedele MJ, Vary TC, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Eukaryotic initiation factors and protein synthesis after resistance exercise in rats. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2000 Mar; 88(3):1036-42. PMID: 10710401.
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    197. Anthony JC, Anthony TG, Kimball SR, Vary TC, Jefferson LS. Orally administered leucine stimulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of postabsorptive rats in association with increased eIF4F formation. J Nutr. 2000 Feb; 130(2):139-45. PMID: 10720160.
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    198. Fedele MJ, Hernandez JM, Lang CH, Vary TC, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS, Farrell PA. Severe diabetes prohibits elevations in muscle protein synthesis after acute resistance exercise in rats. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2000 Jan; 88(1):102-8. PMID: 10642368.
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    199. Vary TC, Jefferson LS, Kimball SR. Role of eIF4E in stimulation of protein synthesis by IGF-I in perfused rat skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Jan; 278(1):E58-64. PMID: 10644537.
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    200. Shah OJ, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Acute attenuation of translation initiation and protein synthesis by glucocorticoids in skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Jan; 278(1):E76-82. PMID: 10644539.
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    201. Shah OJ, Antonetti DA, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Leucine, glutamine, and tyrosine reciprocally modulate the translation initiation factors eIF4F and eIF2B in perfused rat liver. J Biol Chem. 1999 Dec 17; 274(51):36168-75. PMID: 10593901.
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    202. Vary TC, Jefferson LS, Kimball SR. Amino acid-induced stimulation of translation initiation in rat skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol. 1999 Dec; 277(6 Pt 1):E1077-86. PMID: 10600798.
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    203. Lang CH, Wu D, Frost RA, Jefferson LS, Vary TC, Kimball SR. Chronic alcohol feeding impairs hepatic translation initiation by modulating eIF2 and eIF4E. Am J Physiol. 1999 Nov; 277(5 Pt 1):E805-14. PMID: 10567006.
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    204. Farrell PA, Fedele MJ, Hernandez J, Fluckey JD, Miller JL, Lang CH, Vary TC, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Hypertrophy of skeletal muscle in diabetic rats in response to chronic resistance exercise. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1999 Sep; 87(3):1075-82. PMID: 10484579.
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    205. Lang CH, Wu D, Frost RA, Jefferson LS, Kimball SR, Vary TC. Inhibition of muscle protein synthesis by alcohol is associated with modulation of eIF2B and eIF4E. Am J Physiol. 1999 Aug; 277(2 Pt 1):E268-76. PMID: 10444422.
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    206. Kimball SR, Shantz LM, Horetsky RL, Jefferson LS. Leucine regulates translation of specific mRNAs in L6 myoblasts through mTOR-mediated changes in availability of eIF4E and phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6. J Biol Chem. 1999 Apr 23; 274(17):11647-52. PMID: 10206976.
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    207. Farrell PA, Fedele MJ, Vary TC, Kimball SR, Lang CH, Jefferson LS. Regulation of protein synthesis after acute resistance exercise in diabetic rats. Am J Physiol. 1999 Apr; 276(4 Pt 1):E721-7. PMID: 10198309.
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    208. Cooney R, Kimball SR, Eckman R, Maish G, Shumate M, Vary TC. TNF-binding protein ameliorates inhibition of skeletal muscle protein synthesis during sepsis. Am J Physiol. 1999 Apr; 276(4 Pt 1):E611-9. PMID: 10198295.
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    209. Waskiewicz AJ, Johnson JC, Penn B, Mahalingam M, Kimball SR, Cooper JA. Phosphorylation of the cap-binding protein eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E by protein kinase Mnk1 in vivo. Mol Cell Biol. 1999 Mar; 19(3):1871-80. PMID: 10022874; PMCID: PMC83980.
    210. Kimball SR. Eukaryotic initiation factor eIF2. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 1999 Jan; 31(1):25-9. PMID: 10216940.
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    211. Jefferson LS, Fabian JR, Kimball SR. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 is the predominant insulin-regulated eukaryotic initiation factor 2B kinase in skeletal muscle. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 1999 Jan; 31(1):191-200. PMID: 10216953.
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    212. Sinaud S, Balage M, Bayle G, Dardevet D, Vary TC, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS, Grizard J. Diazoxide-induced insulin deficiency greatly reduced muscle protein synthesis in rats: involvement of eIF4E. Am J Physiol. 1999 Jan; 276(1 Pt 1):E50-61. PMID: 9886950.
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    213. Farrell PA, Fedele MJ, Vary TC, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Effects of intensity of acute-resistance exercise on rates of protein synthesis in moderately diabetic rats. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1998 Dec; 85(6):2291-7. PMID: 9843555.
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    214. Kimball SR, Horetsky RL, Jefferson LS. Implication of eIF2B rather than eIF4E in the regulation of global protein synthesis by amino acids in L6 myoblasts. J Biol Chem. 1998 Nov 20; 273(47):30945-53. PMID: 9812990.
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    215. Yoshizawa F, Kimball SR, Vary TC, Jefferson LS. Effect of dietary protein on translation initiation in rat skeletal muscle and liver. Am J Physiol. 1998 Nov; 275(5 Pt 1):E814-20. PMID: 9815001.
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    216. Fox HL, Pham PT, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS, Lynch CJ. Amino acid effects on translational repressor 4E-BP1 are mediated primarily by L-leucine in isolated adipocytes. Am J Physiol. 1998 Nov; 275(5 Pt 1):C1232-8. PMID: 9814971.
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    217. Fabian JR, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Reconstitution and purification of eukaryotic initiation factor 2B (eIF2B) expressed in Sf21 insect cells. Protein Expr Purif. 1998 Jun; 13(1):16-22. PMID: 9631509.
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    218. Kimball SR, Fabian JR, Pavitt GD, Hinnebusch AG, Jefferson LS. Regulation of guanine nucleotide exchange through phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor eIF2alpha. Role of the alpha- and delta-subunits of eiF2b. J Biol Chem. 1998 May 22; 273(21):12841-5. PMID: 9582312.
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    219. Dever TE, Sripriya R, McLachlin JR, Lu J, Fabian JR, Kimball SR, Miller LK. Disruption of cellular translational control by a viral truncated eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2alpha kinase homolog. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Apr 14; 95(8):4164-9. PMID: 9539707; PMCID: PMC22459.
    220. Kimball SR, Horetsky RL, Jagus R, Jefferson LS. Expression and purification of the alpha-subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor eIF2: use as a kinase substrate. Protein Expr Purif. 1998 Apr; 12(3):415-9. PMID: 9535710.
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    221. Pavitt GD, Ramaiah KV, Kimball SR, Hinnebusch AG. eIF2 independently binds two distinct eIF2B subcomplexes that catalyze and regulate guanine-nucleotide exchange. Genes Dev. 1998 Feb 15; 12(4):514-26. PMID: 9472020; PMCID: PMC316533.
    222. Gautsch TA, Anthony JC, Kimball SR, Paul GL, Layman DK, Jefferson LS. Availability of eIF4E regulates skeletal muscle protein synthesis during recovery from exercise. Am J Physiol. 1998 Feb; 274(2 Pt 1):C406-14. PMID: 9486130.
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    223. Kimball SR, Heinzinger NK, Horetsky RL, Jefferson LS. Identification of interprotein interactions between the subunits of eukaryotic initiation factors eIF2 and eIF2B. J Biol Chem. 1998 Jan 30; 273(5):3039-44. PMID: 9446619.
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    224. Fox HL, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS, Lynch CJ. Amino acids stimulate phosphorylation of p70S6k and organization of rat adipocytes into multicellular clusters. Am J Physiol. 1998 Jan; 274(1 Pt 1):C206-13. PMID: 9458729.
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    225. Kimball SR, Horetsky RL, Jefferson LS. Signal transduction pathways involved in the regulation of protein synthesis by insulin in L6 myoblasts. Am J Physiol. 1998 Jan; 274(1 Pt 1):C221-8. PMID: 9458731.
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    226. Vary TC, Jurasinski C, Kimball SR. Reduced 40S initiation complex formation in skeletal muscle during sepsis. Mol Cell Biochem. 1998 Jan; 178(1-2):81-6. PMID: 9546585.
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    227. Yoshizawa F, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Modulation of translation initiation in rat skeletal muscle and liver in response to food intake. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997 Nov 26; 240(3):825-31. PMID: 9398653.
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    228. Fabian JR, Kimball SR, Heinzinger NK, Jefferson LS. Subunit assembly and guanine nucleotide exchange activity of eukaryotic initiation factor-2B expressed in Sf9 cells. J Biol Chem. 1997 May 09; 272(19):12359-65. PMID: 9139680.
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    229. Svanberg E, Jefferson LS, Lundholm K, Kimball SR. Postprandial stimulation of muscle protein synthesis is independent of changes in insulin. Am J Physiol. 1997 May; 272(5 Pt 1):E841-7. PMID: 9176184.
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    230. Kimball SR, Jurasinski CV, Lawrence JC, Jefferson LS. Insulin stimulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle by enhancing the association of eIF-4E and eIF-4G. Am J Physiol. 1997 Feb; 272(2 Pt 1):C754-9. PMID: 9124320.
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    231. Cooney RN, Kimball SR, Vary TC. Regulation of skeletal muscle protein turnover during sepsis: mechanisms and mediators. Shock. 1997 Jan; 7(1):1-16. PMID: 8989831.
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    232. A-Rahim YI, Rannels SL, Kimball SR, Beyer KH, Vesell ES. Studies on pyrazinoylguanidine. 4. Upregulation of phosphodiesterase activity in rat adipose tissue and downregulation of gluconeogenesis and adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate concentrations in perfused rat liver. Pharmacology. 1996 Oct; 53(4):211-8. PMID: 8958559.
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    233. Price NT, Mellor H, Craddock BL, Flowers KM, Kimball SR, Wilmer T, Jefferson LS, Proud CG. eIF2B, the guanine nucleotide-exchange factor for eukaryotic initiation factor 2. Sequence conservation between the alpha, beta and delta subunits of eIF2B from mammals and yeast. Biochem J. 1996 Sep 01; 318 ( Pt 2):637-43. PMID: 8929216; PMCID: PMC1217679.
    234. Price NT, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS, Proud CG. Cloning of cDNA for the gamma-subunit of mammalian translation initiation factor 2B, the guanine nucleotide-exchange factor for eukaryotic initiation factor 2. Biochem J. 1996 Sep 01; 318 ( Pt 2):631-6. PMID: 8809057; PMCID: PMC1217667.
    235. Flowers KM, Mellor H, Matts RL, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Cloning and characterization of complementary and genomic DNAs encoding the epsilon-subunit of rat translation initiation factor-2B. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1996 Jul 17; 1307(3):318-24. PMID: 8688467.
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    236. Asuru AI, Mellor H, Thomas NS, Yu L, Chen JJ, Crosby JS, Hartson SD, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS, Matts RL. Cloning and characterization of cDNAs encoding the epsilon-subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor-2B from rabbit and human. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1996 Jul 17; 1307(3):309-17. PMID: 8688466.
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    237. Kimball SR, Yancisin M, Horetsky RL, Jefferson LS. Translational and pretranslational regulation of protein synthesis by amino acid availability in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 1996 Mar; 28(3):285-94. PMID: 8920637.
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    238. Kimball SR, Jefferson LS, Fadden P, Haystead TA, Lawrence JC. Insulin and diabetes cause reciprocal changes in the association of eIF-4E and PHAS-I in rat skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol. 1996 Feb; 270(2 Pt 1):C705-9. PMID: 8779938.
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    239. Voisin L, Gray K, Flowers KM, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS, Vary TC. Altered expression of eukaryotic initiation factor 2B in skeletal muscle during sepsis. Am J Physiol. 1996 Jan; 270(1 Pt 1):E43-50. PMID: 8772472.
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    240. Kimball SR, Mellor H, Flowers KM, Jefferson LS. Role of translation initiation factor eIF-2B in the regulation of protein synthesis in mammalian cells. Prog Nucleic Acid Res Mol Biol. 1996; 54:165-96. PMID: 8768075.
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    241. Flowers KM, Mellor H, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Structure and sequence of the gene encoding the alpha-subunit of rat translation initiation factor-2B. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1995 Nov 07; 1264(2):163-7. PMID: 7495858.
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    242. Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Allosteric regulation of eukaryotic initiation factor eIF-2B by adenine nucleotides. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995 Jul 26; 212(3):1074-81. PMID: 7626095.
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    243. Flowers KM, Kimball SR, Feldhoff RC, Hinnebusch AG, Jefferson LS. Molecular cloning and characterization of cDNA encoding the alpha subunit of the rat protein synthesis initiation factor eIF-2B. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 May 09; 92(10):4274-8. PMID: 7753796; PMCID: PMC41926.
    244. Kimball SR, Horetsky RL, Jefferson LS. Hormonal regulation of albumin gene expression in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. Am J Physiol. 1995 Jan; 268(1 Pt 1):E6-14. PMID: 7840183.
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    245. Kimball SR, Chen SJ, Risica R, Jefferson LS, Leure-duPree AE. Effects of zinc deficiency on protein synthesis and expression of specific mRNAs in rat liver. Metabolism. 1995 Jan; 44(1):126-33. PMID: 7854157.
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    246. Kimball SR, Karinch AM, Feldhoff RC, Mellor H, Jefferson LS. Purification and characterization of eukaryotic translational initiation factor eIF-2B from liver. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1994 Dec 15; 1201(3):473-81. PMID: 7803480.
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    247. Mellor H, Flowers KM, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding rat PKR, the double-stranded RNA-dependent eukaryotic initiation factor-2 kinase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1994 Nov 22; 1219(3):693-6. PMID: 7948027.
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    248. Mellor H, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Brefeldin A inhibits protein synthesis through the phosphorylation of the alpha-subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor-2. FEBS Lett. 1994 Aug 15; 350(1):143-6. PMID: 8062914.
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    249. Mellor H, Flowers KM, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Cloning and characterization of cDNA encoding rat hemin-sensitive initiation factor-2 alpha (eIF-2 alpha) kinase. Evidence for multitissue expression. J Biol Chem. 1994 Apr 08; 269(14):10201-4. PMID: 7908290.
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    250. Vary TC, Jurasinski CV, Karinch AM, Kimball SR. Regulation of eukaryotic initiation factor-2 expression during sepsis. Am J Physiol. 1994 Feb; 266(2 Pt 1):E193-201. PMID: 8141277.
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    251. Kimball SR, Vary TC, Jefferson LS. Regulation of protein synthesis by insulin. Annu Rev Physiol. 1994; 56:321-48. PMID: 8010743.
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    252. Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Mechanisms of translational control in liver and skeletal muscle. Biochimie. 1994; 76(8):729-36. PMID: 7893823.
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    253. Antonetti DA, Kimball SR, Horetsky RL, Jefferson LS. Regulation of rDNA transcription by insulin in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. J Biol Chem. 1993 Dec 05; 268(34):25277-84. PMID: 8244958.
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    254. Feldhoff RC, Karinch AM, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Purification of eukaryotic initiation factors eIF-2, eIF-2B and eIF-2 alpha kinase from bovine liver. Prep Biochem. 1993 Aug; 23(3):363-74. PMID: 8103216.
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    255. Dahn MS, Hsu CJ, Lange MP, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Factors affecting secretory protein production in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1993 May; 203(1):38-44. PMID: 8475137.
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    256. Ojamaa KM, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Aminoacylation of initiator methionyl-tRNA(i) under conditions inhibitory to initiation of protein synthesis. Am J Physiol. 1993 Feb; 264(2 Pt 1):E257-63. PMID: 8447393.
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    257. Karinch AM, Kimball SR, Vary TC, Jefferson LS. Regulation of eukaryotic initiation factor-2B activity in muscle of diabetic rats. Am J Physiol. 1993 Jan; 264(1 Pt 1):E101-8. PMID: 8430778.
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    258. Hsu CJ, Kimball SR, Antonetti DA, Jefferson LS. Effects of insulin on total RNA, poly(A)+ RNA, and mRNA in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. Am J Physiol. 1992 Dec; 263(6 Pt 1):E1106-12. PMID: 1282301.
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    259. Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Regulation of protein synthesis by modulation of intracellular calcium in rat liver. Am J Physiol. 1992 Nov; 263(5 Pt 1):E958-64. PMID: 1359794.
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    260. Kimball SR, Vary TC, Jefferson LS. Age-dependent decrease in the amount of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 in various rat tissues. Biochem J. 1992 Aug 15; 286 ( Pt 1):263-8. PMID: 1381583; PMCID: PMC1133049.
    261. Vary TC, Kimball SR. Sepsis-induced changes in protein synthesis: differential effects on fast- and slow-twitch muscles. Am J Physiol. 1992 Jun; 262(6 Pt 1):C1513-9. PMID: 1377447.
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    262. Vary TC, Kimball SR. Regulation of hepatic protein synthesis in chronic inflammation and sepsis. Am J Physiol. 1992 Feb; 262(2 Pt 1):C445-52. PMID: 1371643.
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    263. Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Inhibition of microsomal calcium sequestration causes an impairment of initiation of protein synthesis in perfused rat liver. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1991 Jun 28; 177(3):1082-6. PMID: 2059198.
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    264. Kent JD, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Effect of diabetes and insulin treatment of diabetic rats on total RNA, poly(A)+ RNA, and mRNA in skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol. 1991 Mar; 260(3 Pt 1):C409-16. PMID: 1706142.
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    265. Kimball SR, Antonetti DA, Brawley RM, Jefferson LS. Mechanism of inhibition of peptide chain initiation by amino acid deprivation in perfused rat liver. Regulation involving inhibition of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha phosphatase activity. J Biol Chem. 1991 Jan 25; 266(3):1969-76. PMID: 1671047.
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    266. Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Regulation of initiation of protein synthesis by insulin in skeletal muscle. Acta Diabetol. 1991; 28(2):134-9. PMID: 1777648.
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    267. Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Mechanism of the inhibition of protein synthesis by vasopressin in rat liver. J Biol Chem. 1990 Oct 05; 265(28):16794-8. PMID: 2211594.
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    268. Everson WV, Flaim KE, Susco DM, Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Effect of amino acid deprivation on initiation of protein synthesis in rat hepatocytes. Am J Physiol. 1989 Jan; 256(1 Pt 1):C18-27. PMID: 2492151.
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    269. Kimball SR, Everson WV, Flaim KE, Jefferson LS. Initiation of protein synthesis in a cell-free system prepared from rat hepatocytes. Am J Physiol. 1989 Jan; 256(1 Pt 1):C28-34. PMID: 2463762.
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    270. Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Cellular mechanisms involved in the action of insulin on protein synthesis. Diabetes Metab Rev. 1988 Dec; 4(8):773-87. PMID: 3069402.
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    271. Kimball SR, Jefferson LS. Effect of diabetes on guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity in skeletal muscle and heart. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1988 Oct 31; 156(2):706-11. PMID: 3056401.
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    272. Kimball SR, Rannels SL, Elensky MB, Jefferson LS. Quantitation of proteins by dot-immunobinding assay. A comparison of visualization methods using eukaryotic initiation factor 2 and a monospecific antibody. J Immunol Methods. 1988 Feb 10; 106(2):217-23. PMID: 3276793.
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    273. Kimball SR, Everson WV, Myers LM, Jefferson LS. Purification and characterization of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 and a guanine nucleotide exchange factor from rat liver. J Biol Chem. 1987 Feb 15; 262(5):2220-7. PMID: 3818593.
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