PSU Profiles
Last Name

Benjamin Levi

InstitutionCollege of Medicine
Address500 University Drive Hershey PA 17033
Mailbox: H134
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    Collapse Overview 
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    Humanities Department, Penn State College of Medicine (PSCOM).
    Pediatrics Department, Penn State Hershey Medical Center (PSHMC).
    Professor (7/11 – )
    Director, Center for the Protection of Children (7/12 –6/15)
    Associate Professor (7/05 – 6/11)
    Assistant Professor (7/99 – 6/05)

    Australian Centre for Health Law Research, Queensland University of Technology (QUT)
    Adjunct Professor (12/12 – )

    Carle Hospital and Clinic, Urbana Illinois
    Clinical Medical Ethicist (8/95 – 5/96)

    Memorial Medical Center in Savannah, Georgia (7/96 – 6/99)
    Pediatrics Residency, 1999

    University of Illinois at Urbana (6/86 – 12/95)
    MD, 1995
    PhD, 1993, Philosophy of Education
    Major Field: Ethics
    Dissertation: Respecting Autonomy
    MA, 1992, Philosophy

    Antioch College in Yellow Springs, Ohio (9/79 – 6/83)
    BA, 1983, Philosophy

    Fellow, American Academy of Pediatrics (2000).
    Board Certified Pediatrician, American Academy of Pediatrics (1999, 2006, 2016)
    Pediatric Advance Life Support (last re-certification 2016)
    NIH Human Participant Protections Education for Research Teams (2005)
    Penn State Protection of Human Research Participants Investigator Training (last recert. 2016)

    Suspicion/Child Abuse Advance Care Planning Personal Autonomy Ethics Education

    American Academy of Pediatrics (1996 – )
    American Society for Bioethics & Humanities (1998 – )
    Society for Medical Decision Making (2007 – )
    Society on Advance Care Planning & End-of-Life Care (2012 – )

    1. S Gerard, C Krawiec, R Berger, S Iriana, BH Levi, What We Can Learn from Failure: An EMR-Based A Child Protection Alert System, (in preparation).

    2. A Foy, BH Levi, MJ Green, LJ Van Scoy, JS Schubart, Patient Preferences for Medical Care at the End of Life and Surrogate Concordance, (in preparation).

    3. RR Stewart, MJ Green, LJ Van Scoy, JR Schubart, AE Dimmock, C Yang, E Farace, BH Levi, Understanding Recruitment Challenges in a Non-Therapeutic Study of Seriously Ill Patients, (submitted).

    4. MG Green, LJ Van Scoy, AJ Foy, RR Stewart, R Sampath, JR Schubart, EB Lehman, AEF Dimmock, AM Bucher, LS Lehmann, AF Harlow, C Yang, BH Levi, What We Think We Know About Improving Surrogate Decision Making: A Randomized, Controlled Trial, (submitted).

    5. LJ Van Scoy, JM Reading, M Hopkins, B Smith, J Dillon, M Green, BH Levi, Community Game Day: Using an End-of-Life Conversation Game to Encourage Advance Care Planning, (submitted).

    A) Employment
    2011 - Professor, Departments of Pediatrics and Humanities (PSCOM, PSHMC), Hershey, PA. Responsibilities: teaching & research in bioethics; primary care pediatrics and clinical education of residents and medical students; also community service and outreach

    2012-15 Director, Center for the Protection of Children (Penn State University)
    Responsibilities include overseeing the development of an integrated program for clinical, research, and education/outreach activities regarding child abuse.

    2005-11 Associate Professor, Pediatrics & Humanities (PSCOM/PSHMC).

    1999-05 Assistant Professor, Pediatrics & Humanities (PSCOM/PSHMC).

    1996-99 Pediatrics Resident, Memorial Medical Center; Savannah, Georgia.

    1995-96 Bioethics Consultant, Carle Hospital and Clinic; Urbana, Illinois.

    B) Projects & Grants
    1) iLookOut Pings: Harnessing the Power of Technology to Help Stop Child Abuse (PI)
    Awarded $39,100 by Children’s Miracle Network (20172018) (project to develop a systematic approach for using mobile technology to help childcare providers be more aware and skilled at protecting young children from abuse)

    2)iLook Out for Child Abuse: An Innovative Learning Module for Childcare Providers, (PI)
    Awarded, $3.4m by National Institutes of Health (NICHD, 2016-2021, 1 R01 HD088448-01) (research on the efficacy of an online learning module for improving childcare providers’ recognition and reporting of suspected child abuse)

    3)Preparing Family Caregivers of Very Ill Patients for End-of-life Decision-Making, (Co-PI)
    Awarded $2.9m by National Institutes of Health (NINR, 2012-2018, 5 R01 NR102757-01) (research on the efficacy of a decision aid for advance care planning for preparing family caregivers to make surrogate decisions on behalf of loved ones with advanced life-threatening conditions)

    4)Look Out for Child Abuse, (Director)
    Awarded $380,000 Penn State Children’s Hospital & PSHMC (20082017) (project to develop a web resource on child abuse for reporting, documentation, education, legal resources, and links to other resources, in collaboration with the Children's Advocacy Center at the Dickinson School of Law)

    5) Making Your Wishes Known, LLC, (Co-Principal)
    (commercial enterprise created to help transform Making Your Wishes Known from a research tool to a broadly disseminated online decision aid for advance care planning)

    1) Transforming the Lives of Children, (PI)
    Awarded $500,000 by Stabler Foundation (2014-2015)
    (project to provide evidence-based mental health therapy to victims of child abuse, and also to gather research data to evaluate and improve on existing methodologies)

    2 End of Life Health Care Decisions by Patients with Advance Cancer, (Co-I)
    Awarded $967,000 by the American Cancer Society (2007-2013)
    (research on the efficacy of a computer program for advance care planning for patients with cancer)

    3) Advance Care Planning Decision Aid for Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, (Co-PI)
    Awarded $65,505 by Kornfeld Program, Greenwall Foundation (2009-2013)
    (research on the efficacy of a computer program for advance care planning for patients with ALS)

    4) Penn State Suspicion Project, (PI)
    Awarded $57,500 by the Children’s Miracle Network (2003-2011)
    Awarded $40,000 by the Children Youth Family Consortium (2006, 2004)
    (philosophical survey project investigating mandated reporters views regarding the meaning and application of reasonable suspicion in the context of mandated reporting of suspected child abuse)

    5) Post-partum Depression Support Network, (PI)
    Awarded $4,000 by the Children’s Miracle Network (2009-2010)
    Awarded $3,000 by Association of Faculty & Friends (2009-2010)
    (project to develop a support network for women suffering from postpartum depression, including educational material, web-based resources, and community clinicians for referrals)

    6) Penn State Immunization Project, (PI)
    Awarded $299,996 by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (2002-2007)
    (scholarly and educational research project examining opposition to routine childhood immunizations)

    7) Pilot-Testing A Computer-Based Decision Aid for Cancer Patients, (Co-I)
    MJ Green (P.I.) awarded $20,000 by Social Sciences Research Institute, Penn State (2007-08)
    (pilot testing advance directive computer program among cancer patients)

    8) Computer Based Decision Aid for Advance Care Planning, (Co-PI)
    Awarded $23,642 as a Woodward Grant (2006-2007)
    (pilot testing a computer program for education about and generation of advance directives)

    9) Advance Care Planning for Cancer Patients via Interactive Computer, (Co-I)
    MJ Green (P.I.) awarded $150,000 by the 2003 Tobacco Block Grant (2003-2005)
    (research project to develop an interactive computer model for promoting advance care planning with cancer patients)

    10) A Computer Based Decisions Aid for Advance Care Planning, (Co-I)
    MJ Green (P.I.) awarded $244,550, NIH/NINR, 1 R21 NR 008539-01 (2002-2005)
    (research project to design and pilot test a computer program for education about and generation of advance directives)

    11) Convincing the Unconvinced: It’s Worth a Shot, (PI)
    Awarded $25,000, Children’s Miracle Network (2002-2005)
    (research project examining responses to parents’ resistance to childhood immunizations)

    12) Addressing Parents’ Concerns about Childhood Immunizations, (PI)
    Awarded $10,000, Ambulatory Pediatric Association (2002-2003)
    (professional workshop/tutorial that prepares residents to better address parents’ concerns regarding routine childhood immunizations)

    13) Penn State Immunization Project, (PI)
    Awarded $59,048, Children’s Miracle Network (2000, renewed 2001)
    (scholarly and educational research project examining opposition to routine childhood immunizations)

    14) Advance Directive Project, (PI)
    Awarded $6,000, Kienle Center for Humanistic Medicine (1999, renewed 2001)
    (community outreach effort to educate the public about advance directives)

    15) Interactive Computer Program for Advance Care Planning, (Co-I)
    MJ Green (P.I.) awarded $20,000 Dean’s Feasibility Grant, PSCOM, (2001)
    (research project to design a computer program for education about and generation of advance directives.)

    Two days per week of clinical ambulatory pediatrics. The age range of my patients is newborn to 22 years, and I conduct ~1600 acute care visits and ~400 well-child visits per year. In addition to my own panel of continuity patients, I participate fully in the general pediatrics call schedule. In the past, I have also served as ward attending. (~800 hours/year)

    D) Teaching (current)
    1. Human Decision Making, 4th year seminar for medical students
    2. Residency Humanities Integration, program development for residents and fellows (Director)
    3. Clinical Pediatrics, lectures & informal teaching to residents and med students
    4. MICU/SICU Ethics Conference, quarterly seminar for Medical Intensive Care Unit residents, fellows and attending physicians
    5. Pediatric Critical Care Ethics, twice yearly seminar for critical care nurses
    6. Ophthalmology Clinical Ethics Grand Rounds, twice yearly seminar faculty and residents.

    E) ADVISING (dates indicate year of graduation)

    1) Medical Student Advisor:
    Erika Rhone (2010)
    Lindsy Beers (2010)
    Monica Bhagat (2008)
    Bethany Auble (2006)
    Adeline Deladisma (2004)
    Lenny Husen (2004)
    Jamie Lien (2003)

    2) Medical Student Research Projects
    Seth Gerard (2017)
    Kim Rush (2014)
    Matthew Torres (2013)
    Jessica Hensel (2012)
    Josh Hozella (2012)
    Sarah Markham (2012)
    Lisa Toran (2012)
    Andrew Christopher (2011)
    Alana Pietragallo (2011)
    Meredith Goodge (2010)
    Elizabeth Haas (2010)
    Steven Heverly (2010)
    Amanda Hoffert (2010)
    Matthew Jansen (2010)
    Carrie Smith (2010)
    Christi Walsh (2010)
    Justen Aprile (2008)
    Amy Mullen (2007)
    Michael Galuska (2005)
    Melissa Beagle (2003)
    Mark Ellman (2000)

    3) Pediatric Resident Advisor:
    Dr. Eric Chin (2016)
    Dr. Matthew Cascio (2014)
    Dr. Prabesh Bajracharya (2012)
    Dr. Bhavin M. Doshi (2012)
    Dr. Dina Belachew (2009)
    Dr. Anup Kudakkasseril (2008)
    Dr. Vivien Yap (2006)
    Dr. Gusav Woch (2006)
    Dr. Stephen Jay (2003)
    Dr. Jason Lerner (2003)

    4) Faculty Mentoring
    Current Past
    Dr. LJ Van Scoy Dr. Kathryn Crowell
    Dr. Becky Volpe Dr. Kent Hymel
    Dr. Carly Smith

    F) Professional Service Work
    Committee Work
    1. Promotion & Tenure Committee, Member, PSHMC, 2016 —.
    2. Ethics Education Subcommittee, Ethics Committee, Director, 2015––.
    3. Cancer Institute, Member, PSHMC, 2011 —.
    4. Clinical Ethics Consultation Service, Member, PSHMC, 2006 —
    5. Doctors Kienle Center for Humanistic Medicine, Board Member, 2004 —.
    6. Ethics Committee, Member, PSHMC, 2002 —.

    Expert Review
    1. Institutional review for R13 Grant applications, 2015 —.
    2. CTSI review of Grant applications, 2012 —.

    Journal Reviewer (Ad Hoc)
    1. Pediatrics, 2004 — .
    2. American Journal of Bioethics, 2004 — .
    3. Annals of Internal Medicine, 2012 — .
    4. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 2012 — .
    5. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 2011 — .
    6. Journal of Family Practice, 2003 — .
    7. Journal of Public Child Welfare, 2012 — .
    8. New England Journal of Medicine, 2013 — .
    9. Seminars in Clinical Pediatrics, 2008 — .

    1. Research Ethicist Search Committee, Chair, PSCOM, 2015-16.
    2. Humanities Search Committee, Member, PSCOM, 2014-15.
    3. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), 2014. Expert review for national technical review of Decision Aids for Advance Care Planning.
    4. Center for the Protection of Children, Director, PSHMC, 2012-2015.
    5. Social Science Research Institute, Steering Committee Member, PSU, 2012-2015.
    6. Network for Child Protection and Wellbeing, Executive Board Member, PSU, 2012-15.
    7. Campus Security Authority, Member, PSHMC, 2012-2015.
    8. Promotion & Tenure Committee, Member, PSHMC, 2012-2014.
    9. Ethics Committee, Vice Chair, PSHMC, 2006-2012.
    10. Child Abuse Program Committee, Member, PSHMC, 2005-2012.
    11. Clinical Ethics Consultation Service, Director, PSHMC, 2009-2011
    12. IRB Director Search Committee, Member, 2011.
    13. Post-Partum Depression Program Work Group, Director, PSHMC, 2008-2011.
    14. Medical Student Research Committee, Member, 2007-2011.
    15. Search Committee for Clinical Ethicist, Chair, PSHMC, 2008-2010.
    16. Ethics Education, PSHMC Ethics Committee, Director, PSHMC, 2006-2009.
    17. Residents’ Humanities Retreat, Co-Director, 2002-2009.
    18. Search Committee for Department Chair of Humanities, Member, PSHMC, 2007-2008.
    19. Clinical & Translational Science Award Ethics Working Group, PSHMC, Member, 2008
    20. Pediatric Urgent Care Program Committee, Member, PSHMC, 2006-2008.
    21. Pennsylvania Family Support Alliance, Board of Directors, 2005-2009.
    22. U.S. Pharmacopeia, Immunizing Agents Expert Committee, Elected Member, 2000-2005.
    23. American Board of Pediatrics, Question-writer for General Pediatrics, 2001-2006.
    24. Journal of Clinical Ethics, Reviewer, 2001.
    25. National Endowment for the Humanities, Grant Review Panel, 2003.
    26. Teaching and Learning in Medicine, Reviewer, 2003.
    27. Special Review Committee (for institutional grants), Member, PSHMC, 2002-2003.
    28. Search Committee for Department Chair of Humanities, Member, PSHMC, 2002-2003.
    29. Institutional Review Board, Member, PSHMC, 2000-2001.
    30. Pediatrics/Emergency Department Working Group, Co-Chair, PSHMC, 2000-2001.
    31. Pediatric Urgent Care Center Planning Group, Co-Chair, PSHMC, 2000-2001.
    32. Search Committee for Department Chair of Pediatrics, Member, PSHMC, 2000-2001.
    NIH Study Section: Agency for Health

    External (Peer-reviewedP and Invited)

    May 2016P iLook Out for Child Child Abuse. Pediatric Academic Societies National Meeting. Baltimore, MD.

    March 2015P Dealing with Concerns About Child Abuse. Annual Conference for Capital Area Association for the Education of Young Children. Messiah College, PA.

    Nov. 2014P Reporting Child Abuse. Early Childhood Education Summit. University Park, PA.

    Nov. 2013 Challenges for Reporting Suspected Child Abuse. Touching the Future of Children Regional Conference. Harrisburg, PA.

    Nov. 2013 Suspecting Child Abuse: Challenges and Guidance. Rock Ethics Institute University Symposium. State College, PA.

    Nov. 2013 Protecting Children from Abuse: From the Frontlines. Huddle with the Faculty. State College, PA.

    Oct. 2013P Reasonable Medical Certainty: Courting Trouble. National Conference for the American Society for Bioethics and Humanities. Atlanta, GA.

    June 2013 Challenges for Reporting Suspected Child Abuse. Annual Conference for the Commonwealth Prevention Alliance. State College, PA.

    April 2013 Uncovering Child Abuse. Annual Pittsburgh Conference on Child Maltreatment. Pittsburgh, PA.

    August 2012P Results for African Americans Using an Interactive Online Tool for Advance Care Planning. BH Levi et al. & MJ Green. European Association for Communication in Healthcare International Conference, St. Andrews, Scotland.

    May 2012P Use of an Interactive Computer Program for Advance Care Planning with African American Participants. BH Levi et al. & MJ Green. 3rd International Conference on Advance Care Planning and End-of-Life Care Conference, Chicago, IL.

    May 2012P Patients with Congestive Heart Failure Find Decision Aid for Advance Care Planning Helpful and Computer-Generated Advance Directive Accurate. MJ Green et al. & BH Levi. 3rd International Conference on Advance Care Planning and End-of-Life Care Conference, Chicago, IL.

    May 2012P Medical Students’ Experiences Using an Online Decision Aid to Engage in Advance Care Planning. MJ Green et al. & BH Levi. 3rd International Conference on Advance Care Planning and End-of-Life Care Conference, Chicago, IL.

    May 2012P Advance Care Planning Decision Aid Improves Clinician Understanding of Wishes of Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. BH Levi et al. & MJ Green. 3rd International Conference on Advance Care Planning and End-of-Life Care Conference, Chicago, IL.

    May 2012P Reliability of a Computer-Based Decision Aid for Advance Care Planning. J Schubart et al. & BH Levi. 3rd International Conference on Advance Care Planning and End-of-Life Care Conference, Chicago, IL.

    April 2012 Advance Care Planning: Promises and Threats. Keynote presentation at Queensland University of Technology Health Law Series, Brisbane, Australia.

    April 2012 Evolution of Reasonable Suspicion Research Regarding Children at Risk. Health Law Research keynote, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane.

    (PSHMC, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA –unless otherwise indicated)
    May 2016 Advances in Advance Care Planning. Cancer Control Group.
    Jan. 2016 A Question of Good Doctors. Core Competency Lecture Series.
    Dec. 2015 Truth-Telling & Mistakes. Core Competency Lecture Series.
    Sept. 2015 Ethical Issues Regarding Abuse. Core Competency Lecture Series.
    Aug. 2015 Psychiatry Grand Rounds: Ethical Issues in Child Protection.
    Oct. 2014 Ophthalmology Grand Rounds: Ethics Case Seminar.
    March 2013 Update on the Center for the Protection of Children. Development Board of the Penn State Children’s Hosptial.
    March 2013 Responding to Child Abuse. PSHMC’s Mini Medical School.
    Feb. 2013 Evolution of the Center for the Protection of Children. Board of Trustees for the Penn State College of Medicine.

    1. Adjunct professorship, Law School, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia, 2012 — .
    2. Visiting professorship, University of Auckland, New Zealand in 2011-2012.
    3. Studied philosophy at St. Andrews University in Scotland, 1980-1981.
    4. I have spent approximately five years living abroad, and have traveled extensively in West Africa, Southern Asia, Western Europe, New Zealand, and parts of the Middle East.

    1. Construction Worker, Lexington Construction Co., Urbana, IL; March - Aug. 1987.

    2. Research Assistant; Kansas University Pharmaceutical Chemistry Dept.; Lawrence, KS; Sept. 1985 - May 1986.

    3. Research Assistant; Liberian Institute for Biochemical Research; Charlesville, Liberia; Supervisors Dr. Alfred Prince & B. Brotman; New York Blood Center; Feb. - April 1985.

    4. HPLC Chromatographer; Kansas University Chemistry Dept.; Lawrence, KS; Supervisors Dr. Buzz Adams & Dr. Arvin Oke; July 1983 - Jan. 1985.

    5. Grade School Science Teacher; Antioch Alternative Grade School; Yellow Springs, OH; March - June 1983.

    6. Research Assistant: Oregon Health Sciences University OB/GYN Research Labs; Supervisors Dr. J. Bissonnette & Dr. R. Hohimer; Portland, OR; Dec. 1982 - March 1983.

    7. Pastry Chef; Russacks Marine Hotel; Chef: Ian McDonald; St. Andrews, Scotland; March - July 1982.

    8. Play Therapist; Mt. Zion Hosp. Pediatrics Ward; San Francisco, CA, Jan. - June 1981.

    9. Field Representative; Freedom Village; rural MS, March - June 1980.

    1. Michael J. Green, MD, MS; Professor, Departments of Humanities & Medicine, PSHMC, Hershey, PA, 17033; (717)-531-8779;
    2. Dan Shapiro, PhD; Chair, Department of Humanities, PSHMC, Hershey, PA, 17033; (717)-531-8779;
    3. Rick Fiene, PhD; Professor Emeritus, Founding Director, Early Childhood Research and Training Institute, Penn State University,
    4. Lauris Kaldjian, MD, PhD; Director of Program in Bioethics, University of Iowa College of Medicine, SE 605 GH; 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, IA 52242; (319)-384-6180;
    5. Jodi Halpern, MD, PhD; Associate Professor; University of California at Berkeley, 70 University Hall, #1190; Berkeley, CA 94720; (510)-642-4366;
    1. Ian Paul, MD MS; Division Chief, General Pediatrics, Dept. of Pediatrics; PSHMC, 500 University Dr., Hershey, PA 17033; tel: (717)-531-8006;
    2. Barbara Ostrov, MD; Associate Dean, Faculty & Professional development; PSHMC, 500 University Dr., Hershey, PA 17033; tel: (717)-531-6700;
    3. Mark Widome, MD, MPH.; General Pediatrics; Dept. of Pediatrics; PSHMC, 500 University Dr., Hershey, PA 17033; tel: (717)-531-8006;

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Van Scoy LJ, Watson-Martin E, Bohr TA, Levi BH, Green MJ. End-of-Life Conversation Game Increases Confidence for Having End-of-Life Conversations for Chaplains-in-Training. Am J Hosp Palliat Care. 2018 Apr; 35(4):592-600. PMID: 28782376.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Van Scoy LJ, Reading JM, Hopkins M, Smith B, Dillon J, Green MJ, Levi BH. Community Game Day: Using an End-of-Life Conversation Game to Encourage Advance Care Planning. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2017 Nov; 54(5):680-691. PMID: 28743662.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Shapiro DE, Abbott LM, Wolpaw DR, Green MJ, Levi BH. Using a Simulation of a Frustrated Faculty Member During Department Chair Searches: A Proof of Concept Project. Acad Med. 2017 Jun 20. PMID: 28640034.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Mathews B, Yang C, Lehman EB, Mincemoyer C, Verdiglione N, Levi BH. Educating early childhood care and education providers to improve knowledge and attitudes about reporting child maltreatment: A randomized controlled trial. PLoS One. 2017; 12(5):e0177777. PMID: 28542285.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Levi BH, Simmons Z, Hanna C, Brothers A, Lehman E, Farace E, Bain M, Stewart R, Green MJ. Advance care planning for patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Amyotroph Lateral Scler Frontotemporal Degener. 2017 Aug; 18(5-6):388-396. PMID: 28631959.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Green MJ, Van Scoy LJ, Foy AJ, Stewart RR, Sampath R, Schubart JR, Lehman EB, Dimmock AEF, Bucher AM, Lehmann LS, Harlow AF, Yang C, Levi BH. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Strategies to Improve Family Members' Preparedness for Surrogate Decision-Making. Am J Hosp Palliat Care. 2017 Jan 01; 1049909117744554. PMID: 29186982.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Van Scoy LJ, Reading JM, Scott AM, Chuang C, Levi BH, Green MJ. Exploring the Topics Discussed During a Conversation Card Game About Death and Dying: A Content Analysis. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2016 11; 52(5):655-662. PMID: 27650010.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Van Scoy LJ, Green MJ, Reading JM, Scott AM, Chuang CH, Levi BH. Can Playing an End-of-Life Conversation Game Motivate People to Engage in Advance Care Planning? Am J Hosp Palliat Care. 2017 Sep; 34(8):754-761. PMID: 27406696.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Van Scoy LJ, Green MJ, Dimmock AE, Bascom R, Boehmer JP, Hensel JK, Hozella JB, Lehman EB, Schubart JR, Farace E, Stewart RR, Levi BH. High satisfaction and low decisional conflict with advance care planning among chronically ill patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or heart failure using an online decision aid: A pilot study. Chronic Illn. 2016 09; 12(3):227-35. PMID: 27055468.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Van Scoy LJ, Reading JM, Scott AM, Green MJ, Levi BH. Conversation Game Effectively Engages Groups of Individuals in Discussions about Death and Dying. J Palliat Med. 2016 Jun; 19(6):661-7. PMID: 27022862.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Markham SA, Levi BH, Green MJ, Schubart JR. Use of a Computer Program for Advance Care Planning with African American Participants. J Natl Med Assoc. 2015 Feb; 107(1):26-32. PMID: 27282525.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Dias MS, Boehmer S, Johnston-Walsh L, Levi BH. Defining 'reasonable medical certainty' in court: What does it mean to medical experts in child abuse cases? Child Abuse Negl. 2015 Dec; 50:218-27. PMID: 26589362.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Schubart JR, Green MJ, Van Scoy LJ, Lehman E, Farace E, Gusani NJ, Levi BH. Advanced Cancer and End-of-Life Preferences: Curative Intent Surgery Versus Noncurative Intent Treatment. J Palliat Med. 2015 Dec; 18(12):1015-8. PMID: 26262942.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Schubart JR, Camacho F, Green MJ, Rush KA, Levi BH. Assessing the internal consistency and temporal stability of advance directives generated by an interactive, online computer program. BMJ Support Palliat Care. 2017 Mar; 7(1):67-72. PMID: 25743440.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Green MJ, Schubart JR, Whitehead MM, Farace E, Lehman E, Levi BH. Advance Care Planning Does Not Adversely Affect Hope or Anxiety Among Patients With Advanced Cancer. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2015 Jun; 49(6):1088-96. PMID: 25542552.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Volpe RL, Levi BH, Blackhall GF, Green MJ. Ethics pocket cards: an educational tool for busy clinicians. J Clin Ethics. 2014; 25(2):148-51. PMID: 24972065.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Levi BH, Wilkes M, Der-Martirosian C, Latow P, Robinson M, Green MJ. An interactive exercise in advance care planning for medical students. J Palliat Med. 2013 Dec; 16(12):1523-7. PMID: 24175635.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Schubart JR, Toran L, Whitehead M, Levi BH, Green MJ. Informed decision making in advance care planning: concordance of patient self-reported diagnosis with physician diagnosis. Support Care Cancer. 2013 Feb; 21(2):637-41. PMID: 23179490.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Green MJ, Levi BH. The era of "e": the use of new technologies in advance care planning. Nurs Outlook. 2012 Nov-Dec; 60(6):376-383.e2. PMID: 23141197; PMCID: PMC3548399.
    20. Volpe RL, Levi BH. Case study. Exploring the limits of autonomy. Commentary. Hastings Cent Rep. 2012 May-Jun; 42(3):16-7. PMID: 22670293.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Schubart JR, Levi BH, Camacho F, Whitehead M, Farace E, Green MJ. Reliability of an interactive computer program for advance care planning. J Palliat Med. 2012 Jun; 15(6):637-42. PMID: 22512830; PMCID: PMC3362955.
    22. Crowell K, Levi BH. Mandated reporting thresholds for community professionals. Child Welfare. 2012; 91(1):35-53. PMID: 22894014.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Green MJ, Levi BH. Teaching advance care planning to medical students with a computer-based decision aid. J Cancer Educ. 2011 Mar; 26(1):82-91. PMID: 20632222; PMCID: PMC3737727.
    24. Levi BH, Heverley SR, Green MJ. Accuracy of a decision aid for advance care planning: simulated end-of-life decision making. J Clin Ethics. 2011; 22(3):223-38. PMID: 22167985; PMCID: PMC3728667.
    25. Levi BH, Heverley S, Green MJ. Journal of Clinical Ethics. Simulated End-of-Life Decision Making: Accuracy of A Decision Aid for Advance Care Planning. 2011; 3(22):223-38.
    26. Hossler C, Levi BH, Simmons Z, Green MJ. Advance care planning for patients with ALS: feasibility of an interactive computer program. Amyotroph Lateral Scler. 2011 May; 12(3):172-7. PMID: 20812887.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Levi BH, Green MJ. Too soon to give up: re-examining the value of advance directives. Am J Bioeth. 2010 Apr; 10(4):3-22. PMID: 20379910; PMCID: PMC3766745.
    28. Levi BH, Green MJ. Doing what we can with advance care planning. Am J Bioeth. 2010 Apr; 10(4):W1-2. PMID: 20379908; PMCID: PMC3719405.
    29. Levi B, Hester DM. Establishing common ground in a one-time patient encounter. Virtual Mentor. 2009 Mar 01; 11(3):215-22. PMID: 23194902.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Kaldjian LC, Forman-Hoffman VL, Jones EW, Wu BJ, Levi BH, Rosenthal GE. Do faculty and resident physicians discuss their medical errors? J Med Ethics. 2008 Oct; 34(10):717-22. PMID: 18827101.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Green MJ, Levi BH. Development of an interactive computer program for advance care planning. Health Expect. 2009 Mar; 12(1):60-9. PMID: 18823445; PMCID: PMC3737726.
    32. Levi BH. Addressing parents' concerns about childhood immunizations: a tutorial for primary care providers. Pediatrics. 2007 Jul; 120(1):18-26. PMID: 17606557.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Kaldjian LC, Jones EW, Wu BJ, Forman-Hoffman VL, Levi BH, Rosenthal GE. Disclosing medical errors to patients: attitudes and practices of physicians and trainees. J Gen Intern Med. 2007 Jul; 22(7):988-96. PMID: 17473944; PMCID: PMC2219725.
    34. Levi BH, Brown G, Erb C. Reasonable suspicion: a pilot study of pediatric residents. Child Abuse Negl. 2006 Apr; 30(4):345-56. PMID: 16616779.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Levi BH, Brown G. Reasonable suspicion: a study of Pennsylvania pediatricians regarding child abuse. Pediatrics. 2005 Jul; 116(1):e5-12. PMID: 15995018.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Levi BH, Brown G. Description of the immunization information database: a tool for investigating allegations made against childhood immunizations. Vaccine. 2005 Mar 14; 23(16):2009-15. PMID: 15734075.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Weiner BK, Levi BH. The profit motive and spine surgery. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2004 Nov 15; 29(22):2588-91. PMID: 15543078.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Levi BH, Thomas NJ, Green MJ, Rentmeester CA, Ceneviva GD. Jading in the pediatric intensive care unit: Implications for healthcare providers of medically complex children. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2004 May; 5(3):275-7. PMID: 15115567.
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    39. Levi BH, Loeben G. Index of suspicion: feeling not believing. Theor Med Bioeth. 2004; 25(4):277-310. PMID: 15637947.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Green MJ, Levi BH. The truth about lying. Am J Bioeth. 2004; 4(4):63-4. PMID: 16192211.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Levi BH, Green MJ. Ethical concerns for organ transplant coordinators. Prog Transplant. 2003 Dec; 13(4):242-8. PMID: 14765715.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Levi BH. Withdrawing nutrition and hydration from children: legal, ethical, and professional issues. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2003 Mar; 42(2):139-45. PMID: 12659387.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Levi BH, Green MJ. Humanities in full retreat. Teach Learn Med. 2003; 15(4):252-6. PMID: 14612258.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Levi BH. Medical Humanities Review. Patient Autonomy: A Dialogical Approach. 1999; 2(13):17-27.
    45. Levi BH. Four approaches to doing ethics. J Med Philos. 1996 Feb; 21(1):7-39. PMID: 8740882.
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    46. Green, MJ Horowitz, B. Journal of General Internal Medicine. Until I Met Mary. 1989; 6(4):563-64.
    47. Horowitz B. JAMA. The AMA's Position on the Death Penalty. 1989; 1(261):133-34.
    48. BH Levi. Respecting Patient Autonomy.
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