PSU Profiles
Keywords
Last Name
Institution

Neil Christensen

TitleProfessor
InstitutionCollege of Medicine
DepartmentPathology
Address500 University Drive Hershey PA 17033
Mailbox: H059
Phone7175316185

 Overview 
 overview
PREFERRED TITLE/ROLE:

Professor of Pathology, and Microbiology and Immunology
Associate Chief of Experimental Pathology
Medical Director, Jake Gittlen Cancer Research Foundation


GRADUATE PROGRAM AFFILIATIONS:

Integrative Biosciences, MD/PhD Degree Program, Microbiology and Immunology, Cell and Molecular Biology

EDUCATION:

Ph.D., Auckland University, Auckland, New Zealand, 1984
Postdoctoral Training, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, 1984-1990


NARRATIVE:

The overall research theme in Dr. Neil Christensen’s laboratory is studies on immunity and pathogenesis of papillomavirus infections. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection causes hyperproliferative lesions in cutaneous and mucosal epithelium. A proportion of these HPV infections have been shown to progress to malignancies of the uterine cervix. The major subprojects include: 1) characterization of viral capsid neutralizing epitopes; 2) vaccine development; 3) analysis of T-cell recognition of viral epitopes on virus-infected papilloma cells; 4) papillomavirus animal model systems; 5) model systems to test for anti-viral compounds, and 6) methods to propagate human papillomaviruses. Current goals are to test both protective and prophylactic vaccines using animal models of papillomavirus infections. Our more recent studies include identification of host receptor molecules involved in papillomavirus uptake and internalization, and the development of a transgenic animal model to study the role of HLA Class I in papillomavirus immunity.


 Bibliographic 
 selected publications
Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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  1. Cladel NM, Budgeon LR, Cooper TK, Balogh KK, Hu J, Christensen ND. Secondary infections, expanded tissue tropism, and evidence for malignant potential in immunocompromised mice infected with Mus musculus papillomavirus 1 DNA and virus. J Virol. 2013 Aug; 87(16):9391-5.
    View in: PubMed
  2. Kwak K, Jiang R, Jagu S, Wang JW, Wang C, Christensen ND, Roden RB. Multivalent human papillomavirus l1 DNA vaccination utilizing electroporation. PLoS One. 2013; 8(3):e60507.
    View in: PubMed
  3. Cladel NM, Budgeon LR, Hu J, Balogh KK, Christensen ND. Synonymous codon changes in the oncogenes of the cottontail rabbit papillomavirus lead to increased oncogenicity and immunogenicity of the virus. Virology. 2013 Apr 10; 438(2):70-83.
    View in: PubMed
  4. Wexler AG, Frielle C, Berry G, Budgeon LR, Baccon J, Christensen ND, Waldner H. The innate immune adaptor MyD88 is dispensable for spontaneous autoimmune demyelination in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimmunol. 2013 Feb 15; 255(1-2):60-9.
    View in: PubMed
  5. Abadie J, Abbott BP, Abbott R, Abernathy M, Accadia T, Acernese F, Adams C, Adhikari R, Ajith P, Allen B, Allen GS, Ceron EA, Amin RS, Anderson SB, Anderson WG, Antonucci F, Arain MA, Araya MC, Aronsson M, Arun KG, Aso Y, Aston SM, Astone P, Atkinson D, Aufmuth P, Aulbert C, Babak S, Baker P, Ballardin G, Ballmer S, Barker D, Barnum S, Barone F, Barr B, Barriga P, Barsotti L, Barsuglia M, Barton MA, Bartos I, Bassiri R, Bastarrika M, Bauchrowitz J, Bauer TS, Behnke B, Beker MG, Belletoile A, Benacquista M, Bertolini A, Betzwieser J, Beveridge N, Beyersdorf PT, Bigotta S, Bilenko IA, Billingsley G, Birch J, Birindelli S, Biswas R, Bitossi M, Bizouard MA, Black E, Blackburn JK, Blackburn L, Blair D, Bland B, Blom M, Boccara C, Bock O, Bodiya TP, Bondarescu R, Bondu F, Bonelli L, Bonnand R, Bork R, Born M, Bose S, Bosi L, Bouhou B, Boyle M, Braccini S, Bradaschia C, Brady PR, Braginsky VB, Brau JE, Breyer J, Bridges DO, Brillet A, Brinkmann M, Brisson V, Britzger M, Brooks AF, Brown DA, Budzynski R, Bulik T, Bulten HJ, Buonanno A, Burguet-Castell J, Burmeister O, Buskulic D, Buy C, Byer RL, Cadonati L, Cagnoli G, Cain J, Calloni E, Camp JB, Campagna E, Campsie P, Cannizzo J, Cannon K, Canuel B, Cao J, Capano C, Carbognani F, Caride S, Caudill S, Cavaglià M, Cavalier F, Cavalieri R, Cella G, Cepeda C, Cesarini E, Chalermsongsak T, Chalkley E, Charlton P, Chassande-Mottin E, Chelkowski S, Chen Y, Chincarini A, Christensen N, Chua SS, Chung CT, Clark D, Clark J, Clayton JH, Cleva F, Coccia E, Colacino CN, Colas J, Colla A, Colombini M, Conte R, Cook D, Corbitt TR, Cornish N, Corsi A, Costa CA, Coulon JP, Coward DM, Coyne DC, Creighton JD, Creighton TD, Cruise AM, Culter RM, Cumming A, Cunningham L, Cuoco E, Dahl K, Danilishin SL, Dannenberg R, D'Antonio S, Danzmann K, Das K, Dattilo V, Daudert B, Davier M, Davies G, Davis A, Daw EJ, Day R, Dayanga T, De Rosa R, DeBra D, Degallaix J, del Prete M, Dergachev V, DeRosa R, DeSalvo R, Devanka P, Dhurandhar S, Di Fiore L, Di Lieto A, Di Palma I, Di Paolo Emilio M, Di Virgilio A, Díaz M, Dietz A, Donovan F, Dooley KL, Doomes EE, Dorsher S, Douglas ES, Drago M, Drever RW, Driggers JC, Dueck J, Dumas JC, Eberle T, Edgar M, Edwards M, Effler A, Ehrens P, Engel R, Etzel T, Evans M, Evans T, Fafone V, Fairhurst S, Fan Y, Farr BF, Fazi D, Fehrmann H, Feldbaum D, Ferrante I, Fidecaro F, Finn LS, Fiori I, Flaminio R, Flanigan M, Flasch K, Foley S, Forrest C, Forsi E, Fotopoulos N, Fournier JD, Franc J, Frasca S, Frasconi F, Frede M, Frei M, Frei Z, Freise A, Frey R, Fricke TT, Friedrich D, Fritschel P, Frolov VV, Fulda P, Fyffe M, Galimberti M, Gammaitoni L, Garofoli JA, Garufi F, Gemme G, Genin E, Gennai A, Gholami I, Ghosh S, Giaime JA, Giampanis S, Giardina KD, Giazotto A, Gill C, Goetz E, Goggin LM, González G, Gorodetsky ML, Gossler S, Gouaty R, Graef C, Granata M, Grant A, Gras S, Gray C, Greenhalgh RJ, Gretarsson AM, Greverie C, Grosso R, Grote H, Grunewald S, Guidi GM, Gustafson EK, Gustafson R, Hage B, Hall P, Hallam JM, Hammer D, Hammond G, Hanks J, Hanna C, Hanson J, Harms J, Harry GM, Harry IW, Harstad ED, Haughian K, Hayama K, Hayau JF, Hayler T, Heefner J, Heitmann H, Hello P, Heng IS, Heptonstall AW, Hewitson M, Hild S, Hirose E, Hoak D, Hodge KA, Holt K, Hosken DJ, Hough J, Howell EJ, Hoyland D, Huet D, Hughey B, Husa S, Huttner SH, Huynh-Dinh T, Ingram DR, Inta R, Isogai T, Ivanov A, Jaranowski P, Johnson WW, Jones DI, Jones G, Jones R, Ju L, Kalmus P, Kalogera V, Kandhasamy S, Kanner JB, Katsavounidis E, Kawabe K, Kawamura S, Kawazoe F, Kells W, Keppel DG, Khalaidovski A, Khalili FY, Khazanov EA, Kim H, King PJ, Kinzel DL, Kissel JS, Klimenko S, Kondrashov V, Kopparapu R, Koranda S, Kowalska I, Kozak D, Krause T, Kringel V, Krishnamurthy S, Krishnan B, Królak A, Kuehn G, Kullman J, Kumar R, Kwee P, Landry M, Lang M, Lantz B, Lastzka N, Lazzarini A, Leaci P, Leong J, Leonor I, Leroy N, Letendre N, Li J, Li TG, Liguori N, Lin H, Lindquist PE, Lockerbie NA, Lodhia D, et al. Directional limits on persistent gravitational waves using LIGO S5 science data. Phys Rev Lett. 2011 Dec 30; 107(27):271102.
    View in: PubMed
  6. Conway MJ, Cruz L, Alam S, Christensen ND, Meyers C. Differentiation-dependent interpentameric disulfide bond stabilizes native human papillomavirus type 16. PLoS One. 2011; 6(7):e22427.
    View in: PubMed
  7. Bowser BS, Chen HS, Conway MJ, Christensen ND, Meyers C. Human papillomavirus type 18 chimeras containing the L2/L1 capsid genes from evolutionarily diverse papillomavirus types generate infectious virus. Virus Res. 2011 Sep; 160(1-2):246-55.
    View in: PubMed
  8. Lei F, Zhao B, Haque R, Xiong X, Budgeon L, Christensen ND, Wu Y, Song J. In vivo programming of tumor antigen-specific T lymphocytes from pluripotent stem cells to promote cancer immunosurveillance. Cancer Res. 2011 Jul 15; 71(14):4742-7.
    View in: PubMed
  9. Chen HS, Conway MJ, Christensen ND, Alam S, Meyers C. Papillomavirus capsid proteins mutually impact structure. Virology. 2011 Apr 10; 412(2):378-83.
    View in: PubMed
  10. Conway MJ, Cruz L, Alam S, Christensen ND, Meyers C. Cross-neutralization potential of native human papillomavirus N-terminal L2 epitopes. PLoS One. 2011; 6(2):e16405.
    View in: PubMed
  11. Bounds CE, Hu J, Cladel NM, Balogh K, Christensen ND. Vaccine generated immunity targets an HPV16 E7 HLA-A2.1-restricted CD8(+) T cell epitope relocated to an early gene or a late gene of the cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) genome in HLA-A2.1 transgenic rabbits. Vaccine. 2011 Feb 1; 29(6):1194-200.
    View in: PubMed
  12. Hu J, Cladel N, Balogh K, Christensen N. Mucosally delivered peptides prime strong immunity in HLA-A2.1 transgenic rabbits. Vaccine. 2010 May 7; 28(21):3706-13.
    View in: PubMed
  13. Brendle SA, Culp TD, Broutian TR, Christensen ND. Binding and neutralization characteristics of a panel of monoclonal antibodies to human papillomavirus 58. J Gen Virol. 2010 Jul; 91(Pt 7):1834-9.
    View in: PubMed
  14. Cladel NM, Bertotto A, Christensen ND. Human alpha and beta papillomaviruses use different synonymous codon profiles. Virus Genes. 2010 Jun; 40(3):329-40.
    View in: PubMed
  15. Chentoufi AA, Dasgupta G, Christensen ND, Hu J, Choudhury ZS, Azeem A, Jester JV, Nesburn AB, Wechsler SL, BenMohamed L. A novel HLA (HLA-A*0201) transgenic rabbit model for preclinical evaluation of human CD8+ T cell epitope-based vaccines against ocular herpes. J Immunol. 2010 Mar 1; 184(5):2561-71.
    View in: PubMed
  16. Cladel NM, Hu J, Balogh KK, Christensen ND. Differences in methodology, but not differences in viral strain, account for variable experimental outcomes in laboratories utilizing the cottontail rabbit papillomavirus model. J Virol Methods. 2010 Apr; 165(1):36-41.
    View in: PubMed
  17. Broutian TR, Brendle SA, Christensen ND. Differential binding patterns to host cells associated with particles of several human alphapapillomavirus types. J Gen Virol. 2010 Feb; 91(Pt 2):531-40.
    View in: PubMed
  18. Conway MJ, Alam S, Christensen ND, Meyers C. Overlapping and independent structural roles for human papillomavirus type 16 L2 conserved cysteines. Virology. 2009 Oct 25; 393(2):295-303.
    View in: PubMed
  19. Shafti-Keramat S, Schellenbacher C, Handisurya A, Christensen N, Reininger B, Brandt S, Kirnbauer R. Bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV1) and BPV2 are closely related serotypes. Virology. 2009 Oct 10; 393(1):1-6.
    View in: PubMed
  20. Conway MJ, Alam S, Ryndock EJ, Cruz L, Christensen ND, Roden RB, Meyers C. Tissue-spanning redox gradient-dependent assembly of native human papillomavirus type 16 virions. J Virol. 2009 Oct; 83(20):10515-26.
    View in: PubMed
  21. Wolfgang GH, Shibata R, Wang J, Ray AS, Wu S, Doerrfler E, Reiser H, Lee WA, Birkus G, Christensen ND, Andrei G, Snoeck R. GS-9191 is a novel topical prodrug of the nucleotide analog 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)guanine with antiproliferative activity and possible utility in the treatment of human papillomavirus lesions. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009 Jul; 53(7):2777-84.
    View in: PubMed
  22. Hu J, Cladel NM, Budgeon L, Balogh KK, Christensen ND. Papillomavirus DNA complementation in vivo. Virus Res. 2009 Sep; 144(1-2):117-22.
    View in: PubMed
  23. Randhawa P, Viscidi R, Carter JJ, Galloway DA, Culp TD, Huang C, Ramaswami B, Christensen ND. Identification of species-specific and cross-reactive epitopes in human polyomavirus capsids using monoclonal antibodies. J Gen Virol. 2009 Mar; 90(Pt 3):634-9.
    View in: PubMed
  24. Mintz A, Gibo DM, Madhankumar AB, Cladel NM, Christensen ND, Debinski W. Protein- and DNA-based active immunotherapy targeting interleukin-13 receptor alpha2. Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2008 Oct; 23(5):581-9.
    View in: PubMed
  25. Cladel NM, Hu J, Balogh KK, Christensen ND. CRPV genomes with synonymous codon optimizations in the CRPV E7 gene show phenotypic differences in growth and altered immunity upon E7 vaccination. PLoS One. 2008; 3(8):e2947.
    View in: PubMed
  26. Rizk RZ, Christensen ND, Michael KM, Müller M, Sehr P, Waterboer T, Pawlita M. Reactivity pattern of 92 monoclonal antibodies with 15 human papillomavirus types. J Gen Virol. 2008 Jan; 89(Pt 1):117-29.
    View in: PubMed
  27. Hu J, Cladel N, Peng X, Balogh K, Christensen ND. Protective immunity with an E1 multivalent epitope DNA vaccine against cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) infection in an HLA-A2.1 transgenic rabbit model. Vaccine. 2008 Feb 6; 26(6):809-16.
    View in: PubMed
  28. Cladel NM, Hu J, Balogh K, Mejia A, Christensen ND. Wounding prior to challenge substantially improves infectivity of cottontail rabbit papillomavirus and allows for standardization of infection. J Virol Methods. 2008 Mar; 148(1-2):34-9.
    View in: PubMed
  29. Heim K, Hudelist G, Geier A, Szedenik H, Christensen ND, Concin N, Bergant A, Volgger B, Czerwenka K, Höpfl R. Type-specific antiviral antibodies to genital human papillomavirus types in mothers and newborns. Reprod Sci. 2007 Dec; 14(8):806-14.
    View in: PubMed
  30. Hu J, Budgeon LR, Cladel NM, Culp TD, Balogh KK, Christensen ND. Detection of L1, infectious virions and anti-L1 antibody in domestic rabbits infected with cottontail rabbit papillomavirus. J Gen Virol. 2007 Dec; 88(Pt 12):3286-93.
    View in: PubMed
  31. Gambhira R, Karanam B, Jagu S, Roberts JN, Buck CB, Bossis I, Alphs H, Culp T, Christensen ND, Roden RB. A protective and broadly cross-neutralizing epitope of human papillomavirus L2. J Virol. 2007 Dec; 81(24):13927-31.
    View in: PubMed
  32. Kohl TO, Hitzeroth II, Christensen ND, Rybicki EP. Expression of HPV-11 L1 protein in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum. BMC Biotechnol. 2007; 7:56.
    View in: PubMed
  33. Bishop B, Dasgupta J, Klein M, Garcea RL, Christensen ND, Zhao R, Chen XS. Crystal structures of four types of human papillomavirus L1 capsid proteins: understanding the specificity of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. J Biol Chem. 2007 Oct 26; 282(43):31803-11.
    View in: PubMed
  34. Gambhira R, Jagu S, Karanam B, Gravitt PE, Culp TD, Christensen ND, Roden RB. Protection of rabbits against challenge with rabbit papillomaviruses by immunization with the N terminus of human papillomavirus type 16 minor capsid antigen L2. J Virol. 2007 Nov; 81(21):11585-92.
    View in: PubMed
  35. Hu J, Peng X, Budgeon LR, Cladel NM, Balogh KK, Christensen ND. Establishment of a cottontail rabbit papillomavirus/HLA-A2.1 transgenic rabbit model. J Virol. 2007 Jul; 81(13):7171-7.
    View in: PubMed
  36. Culp TD, Spatz CM, Reed CA, Christensen ND. Binding and neutralization efficiencies of monoclonal antibodies, Fab fragments, and scFv specific for L1 epitopes on the capsid of infectious HPV particles. Virology. 2007 May 10; 361(2):435-46.
    View in: PubMed
  37. Hu J, Cladel NM, Christensen ND. Increased immunity to cottontail rabbit papillomavirus infection in EIII/JC inbred rabbits after vaccination with a mutant E6 that correlates with spontaneous regression. Viral Immunol. 2007; 20(2):320-5.
    View in: PubMed
  38. Hu J, Peng X, Schell TD, Budgeon LR, Cladel NM, Christensen ND. An HLA-A2.1-transgenic rabbit model to study immunity to papillomavirus infection. J Immunol. 2006 Dec 1; 177(11):8037-45.
    View in: PubMed
  39. Slupetzky K, Gambhira R, Culp TD, Shafti-Keramat S, Schellenbacher C, Christensen ND, Roden RB, Kirnbauer R. A papillomavirus-like particle (VLP) vaccine displaying HPV16 L2 epitopes induces cross-neutralizing antibodies to HPV11. Vaccine. 2007 Mar 1; 25(11):2001-10.
    View in: PubMed
  40. Hu J, Cladel NM, Balogh K, Budgeon L, Christensen ND. Impact of genetic changes to the CRPV genome and their application to the study of pathogenesis in vivo. Virology. 2007 Feb 20; 358(2):384-90.
    View in: PubMed
  41. Mejia AF, Culp TD, Cladel NM, Balogh KK, Budgeon LR, Buck CB, Christensen ND. Preclinical model to test human papillomavirus virus (HPV) capsid vaccines in vivo using infectious HPV/cottontail rabbit papillomavirus chimeric papillomavirus particles. J Virol. 2006 Dec; 80(24):12393-7.
    View in: PubMed
  42. Culp TD, Budgeon LR, Marinkovich MP, Meneguzzi G, Christensen ND. Keratinocyte-secreted laminin 5 can function as a transient receptor for human papillomaviruses by binding virions and transferring them to adjacent cells. J Virol. 2006 Sep; 80(18):8940-50.
    View in: PubMed
  43. Culp TD, Cladel NM, Balogh KK, Budgeon LR, Mejia AF, Christensen ND. Papillomavirus particles assembled in 293TT cells are infectious in vivo. J Virol. 2006 Nov; 80(22):11381-4.
    View in: PubMed
  44. Kohl T, Hitzeroth II, Stewart D, Varsani A, Govan VA, Christensen ND, Williamson AL, Rybicki EP. Plant-produced cottontail rabbit papillomavirus L1 protein protects against tumor challenge: a proof-of-concept study. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2006 Aug; 13(8):845-53.
    View in: PubMed
  45. Palmer KE, Benko A, Doucette SA, Cameron TI, Foster T, Hanley KM, McCormick AA, McCulloch M, Pogue GP, Smith ML, Christensen ND. Protection of rabbits against cutaneous papillomavirus infection using recombinant tobacco mosaic virus containing L2 capsid epitopes. Vaccine. 2006 Jun 29; 24(26):5516-25.
    View in: PubMed
  46. Hu J, Cladel NM, Budgeon LR, Reed CA, Pickel MD, Christensen ND. Protective cell-mediated immunity by DNA vaccination against Papillomavirus L1 capsid protein in the Cottontail Rabbit Papillomavirus model. Viral Immunol. 2006; 19(3):492-507.
    View in: PubMed
  47. Culp TD, Budgeon LR, Christensen ND. Human papillomaviruses bind a basal extracellular matrix component secreted by keratinocytes which is distinct from a membrane-associated receptor. Virology. 2006 Mar 30; 347(1):147-59.
    View in: PubMed
  48. Govan VA, Christensen ND, Berkower C, Jacobs WR, Williamson AL. Immunisation with recombinant BCG expressing the cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) L1 gene provides protection from CRPV challenge. Vaccine. 2006 Mar 15; 24(12):2087-93.
    View in: PubMed
  49. Wilgenburg BJ, Budgeon LR, Lang CM, Griffith JW, Christensen ND. Characterization of immune responses during regression of rabbit oral papillomavirus infections. Comp Med. 2005 Oct; 55(5):431-9.
    View in: PubMed
  50. Pastrana DV, Gambhira R, Buck CB, Pang YY, Thompson CD, Culp TD, Christensen ND, Lowy DR, Schiller JT, Roden RB. Cross-neutralization of cutaneous and mucosal Papillomavirus types with anti-sera to the amino terminus of L2. Virology. 2005 Jul 5; 337(2):365-72.
    View in: PubMed
  51. Heim K, Widschwendter A, Szedenik H, Geier A, Christensen ND, Bergant A, Concin N, Höpfl R. Specific serologic response to genital human papillomavirus types in patients with vulvar precancerous and cancerous lesions. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Apr; 192(4):1073-83.
    View in: PubMed
  52. Christensen ND. Emerging human papillomavirus vaccines. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2005 Feb; 10(1):5-19.
    View in: PubMed
  53. Wang X, Sapp M, Christensen ND, Dillner J. Heparin-based ELISA reduces background reactivity in virus-like particle-based papillomavirus serology. J Gen Virol. 2005 Jan; 86(Pt 1):65-73.
    View in: PubMed
  54. Christensen ND. Cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) model system to test antiviral and immunotherapeutic strategies. Antivir Chem Chemother. 2005; 16(6):355-62.
    View in: PubMed
  55. Hu J, Peng X, Cladel NM, Pickel MD, Christensen ND. Large cutaneous rabbit papillomas that persist during cyclosporin A treatment can regress spontaneously after cessation of immunosuppression. J Gen Virol. 2005 Jan; 86(Pt 1):55-63.
    View in: PubMed
  56. Clawson GA, Miranda GQ, Sivarajah A, Xin P, Pan W, Thiboutot D, Christensen ND. Inhibition of papilloma progression by antisense oligonucleotides targeted to HPV11 E6/E7 RNA. Gene Ther. 2004 Sep; 11(17):1331-41.
    View in: PubMed
  57. Hu J, Cladel NM, Budgeon LR, Christensen ND. Characterization of three rabbit oral papillomavirus oncogenes. Virology. 2004 Jul 20; 325(1):48-55.
    View in: PubMed
  58. McLaughlin-Drubin ME, Christensen ND, Meyers C. Propagation, infection, and neutralization of authentic HPV16 virus. Virology. 2004 May 1; 322(2):213-9.
    View in: PubMed
  59. Hu J, Cladel NM, Wang Z, Han R, Pickel MD, Christensen ND. GM-CSF enhances protective immunity to cottontail rabbit papillomavirus E8 genetic vaccination in rabbits. Vaccine. 2004 Mar 12; 22(9-10):1124-30.
    View in: PubMed
  60. Culp TD, Christensen ND. Kinetics of in vitro adsorption and entry of papillomavirus virions. Virology. 2004 Feb 5; 319(1):152-61.
    View in: PubMed
  61. Peh WL, Brandsma JL, Christensen ND, Cladel NM, Wu X, Doorbar J. The viral E4 protein is required for the completion of the cottontail rabbit papillomavirus productive cycle in vivo. J Virol. 2004 Feb; 78(4):2142-51.
    View in: PubMed
  62. Embers ME, Budgeon LR, Culp TD, Reed CA, Pickel MD, Christensen ND. Differential antibody responses to a distinct region of human papillomavirus minor capsid proteins. Vaccine. 2004 Jan 26; 22(5-6):670-80.
    View in: PubMed
  63. Harms JF, Welch DR, Samant RS, Shevde LA, Miele ME, Babu GR, Goldberg SF, Gilman VR, Sosnowski DM, Campo DA, Gay CV, Budgeon LR, Mercer R, Jewell J, Mastro AM, Donahue HJ, Erin N, Debies MT, Meehan WJ, Jones AL, Mbalaviele G, Nickols A, Christensen ND, Melly R, Beck LN, Kent J, Rader RK, Kotyk JJ, Pagel MD, Westlin WF, Griggs DW. A small molecule antagonist of the alpha(v)beta3 integrin suppresses MDA-MB-435 skeletal metastasis. Clin Exp Metastasis. 2004; 21(2):119-28.
    View in: PubMed
  64. Selinka HC, Giroglou T, Nowak T, Christensen ND, Sapp M. Further evidence that papillomavirus capsids exist in two distinct conformations. J Virol. 2003 Dec; 77(24):12961-7.
    View in: PubMed
  65. Carter JJ, Wipf GC, Benki SF, Christensen ND, Galloway DA. Identification of a human papillomavirus type 16-specific epitope on the C-terminal arm of the major capsid protein L1. J Virol. 2003 Nov; 77(21):11625-32.
    View in: PubMed
  66. Varsani A, Williamson AL, de Villiers D, Becker I, Christensen ND, Rybicki EP. Chimeric human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) L1 particles presenting the common neutralizing epitope for the L2 minor capsid protein of HPV-6 and HPV-16. J Virol. 2003 Aug; 77(15):8386-93.
    View in: PubMed
  67. Culp TD, Christensen ND. Quantitative RT-PCR assay for HPV infection in cultured cells. J Virol Methods. 2003 Aug; 111(2):135-44.
    View in: PubMed
  68. Wang X, Wang Z, Christensen ND, Dillner J. Mapping of human serum-reactive epitopes in virus-like particles of human papillomavirus types 16 and 11. Virology. 2003 Jun 20; 311(1):213-21.
    View in: PubMed
  69. Wang XM, Cook JC, Lee JC, Jansen KU, Christensen ND, Ludmerer SW, McClements WL. Human papillomavirus type 6 virus-like particles present overlapping yet distinct conformational epitopes. J Gen Virol. 2003 Jun; 84(Pt 6):1493-7.
    View in: PubMed
  70. Jenkins AL, Lang CM, Budgeon LR, Cladel NM, Reed CA, Welch DR, Christensen ND, Jenkins AJ. Mucosally-derived HPV-40 can infect both human genital foreskin and cutaneous hand skin tissues grafted into athymic mice. Virus Res. 2003 May; 93(1):109-14.
    View in: PubMed
  71. Wang G, Christensen ND, Wigdahl B, Guttentag SH, Floros J. Differences in N-linked glycosylation between human surfactant protein-B variants of the C or T allele at the single-nucleotide polymorphism at position 1580: implications for disease. Biochem J. 2003 Jan 1; 369(Pt 1):179-84.
    View in: PubMed
  72. Hu J, Cladel NM, Pickel MD, Christensen ND. Amino acid residues in the carboxy-terminal region of cottontail rabbit papillomavirus E6 influence spontaneous regression of cutaneous papillomas. J Virol. 2002 Dec; 76(23):11801-8.
    View in: PubMed
  73. Harms JF, Budgeon LR, Christensen ND, Welch DR. Maintaining GFP tissue fluorescence through bone decalcification and long-term storage. Biotechniques. 2002 Dec; 33(6):1197-200.
    View in: PubMed
  74. Embers ME, Budgeon LR, Pickel M, Christensen ND. Protective immunity to rabbit oral and cutaneous papillomaviruses by immunization with short peptides of L2, the minor capsid protein. J Virol. 2002 Oct; 76(19):9798-805.
    View in: PubMed
  75. Peh WL, Middleton K, Christensen N, Nicholls P, Egawa K, Sotlar K, Brandsma J, Percival A, Lewis J, Liu WJ, Doorbar J. Life cycle heterogeneity in animal models of human papillomavirus-associated disease. J Virol. 2002 Oct; 76(20):10401-16.
    View in: PubMed
  76. Mintz A, Gibo DM, Slagle-Webb B, Christensen ND, Debinski W. IL-13Ralpha2 is a glioma-restricted receptor for interleukin-13. Neoplasia. 2002 Sep-Oct; 4(5):388-99.
    View in: PubMed
  77. Combita AL, Touzé A, Bousarghin L, Christensen ND, Coursaget P. Identification of two cross-neutralizing linear epitopes within the L1 major capsid protein of human papillomaviruses. J Virol. 2002 Jul; 76(13):6480-6.
    View in: PubMed
  78. Hu J, Han R, Cladel NM, Pickel MD, Christensen ND. Intracutaneous DNA vaccination with the E8 gene of cottontail rabbit papillomavirus induces protective immunity against virus challenge in rabbits. J Virol. 2002 Jul; 76(13):6453-9.
    View in: PubMed
  79. Heim K, Widschwendter A, Pirschner G, Wieland U, Awerkiew S, Christensen ND, Bergant A, Marth C, Höpfl R. Antibodies to human papillomavirus 16 L1 virus-like particles as an independent prognostic marker in cervical cancer. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002 Apr; 186(4):705-11.
    View in: PubMed
  80. Han R, Peng X, Reed CA, Cladel NM, Budgeon LR, Pickel MD, Christensen ND. Gene gun-mediated intracutaneous vaccination with papillomavirus E7 gene delays cancer development of papillomavirus-induced skin papillomas on rabbits. Cancer Detect Prev. 2002; 26(6):458-67.
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  81. Christensen ND, Cladel NM, Reed CA, Budgeon LR, Embers ME, Skulsky DM, McClements WL, Ludmerer SW, Jansen KU. Hybrid papillomavirus L1 molecules assemble into virus-like particles that reconstitute conformational epitopes and induce neutralizing antibodies to distinct HPV types. Virology. 2001 Dec 20; 291(2):324-34.
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  82. Christensen ND, Reed CA, Culp TD, Hermonat PL, Howett MK, Anderson RA, Zaneveld LJ. Papillomavirus microbicidal activities of high-molecular-weight cellulose sulfate, dextran sulfate, and polystyrene sulfonate. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2001 Dec; 45(12):3427-32.
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  83. McClements WL, Wang XM, Ling JC, Skulsky DM, Christensen ND, Jansen KU, Ludmerer SW. A novel human papillomavirus type 6 neutralizing domain comprising two discrete regions of the major capsid protein L1. Virology. 2001 Oct 25; 289(2):262-8.
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  84. Christensen ND, Han R, Cladel NM, Pickel MD. Combination treatment with intralesional cidofovir and viral-DNA vaccination cures large cottontail rabbit papillomavirus-induced papillomas and reduces recurrences. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2001 Apr; 45(4):1201-9.
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  85. Giroglou T, Sapp M, Lane C, Fligge C, Christensen ND, Streeck RE, Rose RC. Immunological analyses of human papillomavirus capsids. Vaccine. 2001 Feb 8; 19(13-14):1783-93.
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  86. Yeager MD, Aste-Amezaga M, Brown DR, Martin MM, Shah MJ, Cook JC, Christensen ND, Ackerson C, Lowe RS, Smith JF, Keller P, Jansen KU. Neutralization of human papillomavirus (HPV) pseudovirions: a novel and efficient approach to detect and characterize HPV neutralizing antibodies. Virology. 2000 Dec 20; 278(2):570-7.
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  87. Höpfl R, Heim K, Christensen N, Zumbach K, Wieland U, Volgger B, Widschwendter A, Haimbuchner S, Müller-Holzner E, Pawlita M, Pfister H, Fritsch P. Spontaneous regression of CIN and delayed-type hypersensitivity to HPV-16 oncoprotein E7. Lancet. 2000 Dec 9; 356(9246):1985-6.
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  88. Christensen ND, Pickel MD, Budgeon LR, Kreider JW. In vivo anti-papillomavirus activity of nucleoside analogues including cidofovir on CRPV-induced rabbit papillomas. Antiviral Res. 2000 Nov; 48(2):131-42.
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  89. Han R, Cladel NM, Reed CA, Peng X, Budgeon LR, Pickel M, Christensen ND. DNA vaccination prevents and/or delays carcinoma development of papillomavirus-induced skin papillomas on rabbits. J Virol. 2000 Oct; 74(20):9712-6.
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  90. Han R, Reed CA, Cladel NM, Christensen ND. Immunization of rabbits with cottontail rabbit papillomavirus E1 and E2 genes: protective immunity induced by gene gun-mediated intracutaneous delivery but not by intramuscular injection. Vaccine. 2000 Jul 1; 18(26):2937-44.
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  91. Christensen ND, Cladel NM, Reed CA, Han R. Rabbit oral papillomavirus complete genome sequence and immunity following genital infection. Virology. 2000 Apr 10; 269(2):451-61.
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  92. Petter A, Heim K, Guger M, Ciresa-Kö Nig A, Christensen N, Sarcletti M, Wieland U, Pfister H, Zangerle R, Höpfl R. Specific serum IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies to human papillomavirus types 6, 11, 16, 18 and 31 virus-like particles in human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive women. J Gen Virol. 2000 Mar; 81(Pt 3):701-8.
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  93. Ludmerer SW, McClements WL, Wang XM, Ling JC, Jansen KU, Christensen ND. HPV11 mutant virus-like particles elicit immune responses that neutralize virus and delineate a novel neutralizing domain. Virology. 2000 Jan 20; 266(2):237-45.
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  94. Samant RS, Seraj MJ, Saunders MM, Sakamaki TS, Shevde LA, Harms JF, Leonard TO, Goldberg SF, Budgeon L, Meehan WJ, Winter CR, Christensen ND, Verderame MF, Donahue HJ, Welch DR. Analysis of mechanisms underlying BRMS1 suppression of metastasis. Clin Exp Metastasis. 2000; 18(8):683-93.
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  95. Peng S, Qi Y, Christensen N, Hengst K, Kennedy L, Frazer IH, Tindle RW. Capture ElISA and in vitro cell binding assay for the detection of antibodies to human papillomavirus type 6b virus-like particles in patients with anogenital warts. Pathology. 1999 Nov; 31(4):418-22.
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  96. Han R, Cladel NM, Reed CA, Peng X, Christensen ND. Protection of rabbits from viral challenge by gene gun-based intracutaneous vaccination with a combination of cottontail rabbit papillomavirus E1, E2, E6, and E7 genes. J Virol. 1999 Aug; 73(8):7039-43.
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  97. Han R, Reed CA, Cladel NM, Christensen ND. Intramuscular injection of plasmid DNA encoding cottontail rabbit papillomavirus E1, E2, E6 and E7 induces T cell-mediated but not humoral immune responses in rabbits. Vaccine. 1999 Mar 17; 17(11-12):1558-66.
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  98. Howett MK, Neely EB, Christensen ND, Wigdahl B, Krebs FC, Malamud D, Patrick SD, Pickel MD, Welsh PA, Reed CA, Ward MG, Budgeon LR, Kreider JW. A broad-spectrum microbicide with virucidal activity against sexually transmitted viruses. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1999 Feb; 43(2):314-21.
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  99. Han R, Cladel NM, Reed CA, Christensen ND. Characterization of transformation function of cottontail rabbit papillomavirus E5 and E8 genes. Virology. 1998 Nov 25; 251(2):253-63.
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  100. Harvey SB, Cladel NM, Budgeon LR, Welsh PA, Griffith JW, Lang CM, Christensen ND. Rabbit genital tissue is susceptible to infection by rabbit oral papillomavirus: an animal model for a genital tissue-targeting papillomavirus. J Virol. 1998 Jun; 72(6):5239-44.
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  101. Christensen ND, Koltun WA, Cladel NM, Budgeon LR, Reed CA, Kreider JW, Welsh PA, Patrick SD, Yang H. Coinfection of human foreskin fragments with multiple human papillomavirus types (HPV-11, -40, and -LVX82/MM7) produces regionally separate HPV infections within the same athymic mouse xenograft. J Virol. 1997 Oct; 71(10):7337-44.
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  102. Wang Z, Christensen N, Schiller JT, Dillner J. A monoclonal antibody against intact human papillomavirus type 16 capsids blocks the serological reactivity of most human sera. J Gen Virol. 1997 Sep; 78 ( Pt 9):2209-15.
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  103. Roden RB, Armstrong A, Haderer P, Christensen ND, Hubbert NL, Lowy DR, Schiller JT, Kirnbauer R. Characterization of a human papillomavirus type 16 variant-dependent neutralizing epitope. J Virol. 1997 Aug; 71(8):6247-52.
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  104. Leiserowitz GS, Hall KS, Foster CA, Hitchcock ME, Christensen ND, Heim K, Smith LH. Detection of serologic neutralizing antibodies against HPV-11 in patients with condyloma acuminata and cervical dysplasia using an in vitro assay. Gynecol Oncol. 1997 Aug; 66(2):295-9.
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  105. Ludmerer SW, Benincasa D, Mark GE, Christensen ND. A neutralizing epitope of human papillomavirus type 11 is principally described by a continuous set of residues which overlap a distinct linear, surface-exposed epitope. J Virol. 1997 May; 71(5):3834-9.
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  106. Howett MK, Christensen ND, Kreider JW. Tissue xenografts as a model system for study of the pathogenesis of papillomaviruses. Clin Dermatol. 1997 Mar-Apr; 15(2):229-36.
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  107. Carter JJ, Koutsky LA, Wipf GC, Christensen ND, Lee SK, Kuypers J, Kiviat N, Galloway DA. The natural history of human papillomavirus type 16 capsid antibodies among a cohort of university women. J Infect Dis. 1996 Nov; 174(5):927-36.
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  108. Christensen ND, Reed CA, Cladel NM, Hall K, Leiserowitz GS. Monoclonal antibodies to HPV-6 L1 virus-like particles identify conformational and linear neutralizing epitopes on HPV-11 in addition to type-specific epitopes on HPV-6. Virology. 1996 Oct 15; 224(2):477-86.
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  109. Christensen ND, Dillner J, Eklund C, Carter JJ, Wipf GC, Reed CA, Cladel NM, Galloway DA. Surface conformational and linear epitopes on HPV-16 and HPV-18 L1 virus-like particles as defined by monoclonal antibodies. Virology. 1996 Sep 1; 223(1):174-84.
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  110. Christensen ND, Cladel NM, Reed CA, Budgeon LR, Welsh PA, Patrick SD, Kreider JW. Laboratory production of infectious stocks of rabbit oral papillomavirus. J Gen Virol. 1996 Aug; 77 ( Pt 8):1793-8.
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  111. Belnap DM, Olson NH, Cladel NM, Newcomb WW, Brown JC, Kreider JW, Christensen ND, Baker TS. Conserved features in papillomavirus and polyomavirus capsids. J Mol Biol. 1996 Jun 7; 259(2):249-63.
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  112. Roden RB, Hubbert NL, Kirnbauer R, Christensen ND, Lowy DR, Schiller JT. Assessment of the serological relatedness of genital human papillomaviruses by hemagglutination inhibition. J Virol. 1996 May; 70(5):3298-301.
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  113. Christensen ND, Reed CA, Cladel NM, Han R, Kreider JW. Immunization with viruslike particles induces long-term protection of rabbits against challenge with cottontail rabbit papillomavirus. J Virol. 1996 Feb; 70(2):960-5.
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  114. Kreider JW, Cladel NM, Patrick SD, Welsh PA, DiAngelo SL, Bower JM, Christensen ND. High efficiency induction of papillomas in vivo using recombinant cottontail rabbit papillomavirus DNA. J Virol Methods. 1995 Oct; 55(2):233-44.
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  115. Smith LH, Foster C, Hitchcock ME, Leiserowitz GS, Hall K, Isseroff R, Christensen ND, Kreider JW. Titration of HPV-11 infectivity and antibody neutralization can be measured in vitro. J Invest Dermatol. 1995 Sep; 105(3):438-44.
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  116. Heim K, Christensen ND, Hoepfl R, Wartusch B, Pinzger G, Zeimet A, Baumgartner P, Kreider JW, Dapunt O. Serum IgG, IgM, and IgA reactivity to human papillomavirus types 11 and 6 virus-like particles in different gynecologic patient groups. J Infect Dis. 1995 Aug; 172(2):395-402.
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  117. Christensen ND, Reed CA, Cladel NM. Induction of neutralizing antibodies to papillomaviruses by anti-idiotypic antibodies. Virology. 1995 Jul 10; 210(2):292-301.
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  118. Christensen ND, Cladel NM, Reed CA. Postattachment neutralization of papillomaviruses by monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. Virology. 1995 Feb 20; 207(1):136-42.
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  119. Heim K, Christensen ND, Höpfl R, Wartusch B, Zeimet A, Larcher C, Ruth N, Bergant A, Pirschner G, Dierich MP, et al. [Specific serologic studies with a novel authentic HPV antigen (virus-like particles) for HPV-6 antibodies in gynecologic patient samples]. Gynakol Geburtshilfliche Rundsch. 1995; 35 Suppl 1:25-31.
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  120. Christensen ND, Kirnbauer R, Schiller JT, Ghim SJ, Schlegel R, Jenson AB, Kreider JW. Human papillomavirus types 6 and 11 have antigenically distinct strongly immunogenic conformationally dependent neutralizing epitopes. Virology. 1994 Nov 15; 205(1):329-35.
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  121. Hines JF, Ghim SJ, Christensen ND, Kreider JW, Barnes WA, Schlegel R, Jenson AB. Role of conformational epitopes expressed by human papillomavirus major capsid proteins in the serologic detection of infection and prophylactic vaccination. Gynecol Oncol. 1994 Oct; 55(1):13-20.
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  122. Christensen ND, Höpfl R, DiAngelo SL, Cladel NM, Patrick SD, Welsh PA, Budgeon LR, Reed CA, Kreider JW. Assembled baculovirus-expressed human papillomavirus type 11 L1 capsid protein virus-like particles are recognized by neutralizing monoclonal antibodies and induce high titres of neutralizing antibodies. J Gen Virol. 1994 Sep; 75 ( Pt 9):2271-6.
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  123. Hines JF, Ghim SJ, Christensen ND, Kreider JW, Barnes WA, Schlegel R, Jenson AB. The expressed L1 proteins of HPV-1, HPV-6, and HPV-11 display type-specific epitopes with native conformation and reactivity with neutralizing and nonneutralizing antibodies. Pathobiology. 1994; 62(4):165-71.
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  124. Höpfl RM, Christensen ND, Angell MG, Kreider JW. Skin test to assess immunity against cottontail rabbit papillomavirus antigens in rabbits with progressing papillomas or after papilloma regression. J Invest Dermatol. 1993 Aug; 101(2):227-31.
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  125. Christensen ND, Kreider JW. Monoclonal antibody neutralization of BPV-1. Virus Res. 1993 May; 28(2):195-202.
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  126. Kreider JW, Christensen ND, Christian CB, Pickel MD. Preclinical system for evaluating topical podofilox treatment of papillomas: dose-response and duration of growth prior to treatment. J Invest Dermatol. 1992 Dec; 99(6):813-8.
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  127. Angell MG, Christensen ND, Kreider JW. An in vitro system for studying the initial stages of cottontail rabbit papillomavirus infection. J Virol Methods. 1992 Sep; 39(1-2):207-16.
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  128. Christensen ND, Kreider JW, Shah KV, Rando RF. Detection of human serum antibodies that neutralize infectious human papillomavirus type 11 virions. J Gen Virol. 1992 May; 73 ( Pt 5):1261-7.
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  129. Okabayashi M, Angell MG, Christensen ND, Kreider JW. Morphometric analysis and identification of infiltrating leucocytes in regressing and progressing Shope rabbit papillomas. Int J Cancer. 1991 Dec 2; 49(6):919-23.
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  130. Christensen ND, Kreider JW. Neutralization of CRPV infectivity by monoclonal antibodies that identify conformational epitopes on intact virions. Virus Res. 1991 Nov; 21(3):169-79.
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  131. Ghim S, Christensen ND, Kreider JW, Jenson AB. Comparison of neutralization of BPV-1 infection of C127 cells and bovine fetal skin xenografts. Int J Cancer. 1991 Sep 9; 49(2):285-9.
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  132. Christensen ND, Kreider JW, Kan NC, DiAngelo SL. The open reading frame L2 of cottontail rabbit papillomavirus contains antibody-inducing neutralizing epitopes. Virology. 1991 Apr; 181(2):572-9.
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  133. Christensen ND, Kreider JW, Cladel NM, Patrick SD, Welsh PA. Monoclonal antibody-mediated neutralization of infectious human papillomavirus type 11. J Virol. 1990 Nov; 64(11):5678-81.
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  134. Christensen ND, Kreider JW. Antibody-mediated neutralization in vivo of infectious papillomaviruses. J Virol. 1990 Jul; 64(7):3151-6.
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  135. Christensen ND, Kreider JW, Cladel NM, Galloway DA. Immunological cross-reactivity to laboratory-produced HPV-11 virions of polysera raised against bacterially derived fusion proteins and synthetic peptides of HPV-6b and HPV-16 capsid proteins. Virology. 1990 Mar; 175(1):1-9.
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  136. Christensen ND, Kreider JW. Helper and suppressor functions of panned populations of immune peritoneal T cells with reactivity to the rat mammary adenocarcinoma 13762A. Cell Immunol. 1988 Mar; 112(1):200-13.
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  137. Christensen ND, Kreider JW, Horetsky RL. Suppressor lymphokine produced by rat T-cells in response to syngeneic mammary adenocarcinoma 13762A. Cancer Res. 1988 Feb 15; 48(4):943-9.
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  138. Christensen ND, Kreider JW, Bartlett GL, Horetsky RL. Distinct T-cell proliferative responses to 13762A rat mammary adenocarcinoma and derived clones. Cell Immunol. 1986 Feb; 97(2):433-45.
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  139. Kreider JW, Bartlett GL, Christensen ND, Welsh P. Systemic adoptive transfer of immunity and low-dose irradiation eradicate metastases of 13762A rat mammary adenocarcinoma. Int J Cancer. 1985 Aug 15; 36(2):217-24.
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